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PSYC2001 Full Notes for the Entire Year

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PSYC 2001
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PSYC2001PSYC2001 MIDTERM NOTESHOW DO WE ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE1 ExperienceoProblem experience is complexmany causes for an outcome other variables some may be missed some information might be considered when it shouldnt beex energy drinks helped me ace my test as I stayed up later that night but could be due to good sleepoProblem no comparison groupif personal experience is compared to previous experience and others experience not the most systematic and unbiased2 IntuitionoProblem biasesthinking the easy way popup principle which is the easiest something comes to mind the more confident you are that its true thinking the way we want cherry picking to select evidence that supports our beliefs confirmatory hypothesis testing by asking biased questions to confirm hypotheses being overconfident in something and not testing it right3 AuthorityoProblem may draw on personal experience and intuition which therefore ties their problems to authoritiesoProblem expertise in one domain and not another4 Scientificempirical methodoWay to acquire information through the measurement of variablesoUse controlled observations ex Bushman 2002made participants angry in same way got some to punch a punching bag and others to sit quietly for the same amount of time then measured everyones aggression levels found that those who punched the bag were angrier by the end of iteveryone was equal at start everyone did their task for 2 minutes everyone was measured equally thus control plays an important partoUse scientific reasoning hypothesis developed from research question must be able to be tested through empirical observations that are structured and controlled to limit the potential for bias thus scientific reasoning is important to eliminate the easy way of thinking to make systematic observations and find supportive evidence Scientific methodComparison group group that hasnt been manipulatedused to compare dataConfounds alternative explanationsneed to isolate variablesConfederate actor playing specific roleProbabilistic research is probablePresent bias look for desired outcomeVARIABLES1Values that change2Has at least two levels ex high and low3Opposite of variable is a constant ie has one level4Concrete variable welldefined concrete easily observed easily measured5Abstract variable intangible abstract more complicated to measure aka constructs conceptual variables conceptual definitionsmain focus of psychology6Can be measured andor manipulated OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS7Way to measure and define an abstract variable in a specific and observable manner8Benefits specific definitions allow research questions to be tested also allows others to replicate or refute9Disadvantages oversimplify abstract variables or not demonstrate pure measures of the abstract variable WUNDT10Founder of psychology111879 first psychology lab12Merged philosophy with experimental methods of physiology13Measured the speed of mental processes14Studied introspection CONTEMPORARY PSYCHOLOGYMeasuring Conceptual Definitions ie transforming conceptual definitions into operational definitions1 Selfreport15Participants provide responses to questionsstatements related to conceptual definition16Advantages direct17Disadvantages easy to distort dishonest at times2 Physiology18Functioning of bodys nervous and endocrine system19Advantages objective accurate reliable etc20Disadvantages expensive unavailable equipment artificial setting3 Behaviour21Observational22Frequency quality time intensity23Advantages many options natural setting24Disadvantages behaviour may be temporary or situational SCALES OF MEASUREMENT1 Categorical categories ex malefemale type of jobs2 Quantitativea Ordinal scale involves ranking ex low medium highb Interval scale equal distance between levels zero does not mean an absence of a variable ex temperaturec Ratio equal distance between levels zero means the absence of a variable ex weight RESEARCH QUESTION TO HYPOTHESIS25Research question general question about specific topic26Hypothesis tentative answer to research questionoAbstract variables need to be operationally definedoHypothesis doesnt need to be the one and only reason 4 SCIENTIFIC CYCLES1 Theorydata cycle 27Gaining information and building ideas through empirical and structured observation28Measure variables and collect data29Data set of empirical observations30Theory ideas about how variables relate to one anotheroGood theory supported by data falsifiable theory has the potential of being supported or not supported parsimonious all things being equal simplest solution is bestoNever prove a theoryconsider the weight of evidence for the theory oTheory is one method to generate research questionscan use professional experience personal experience intuition messages from authorities oExampleTheory Selfdiscipline is the key to success in lifeResearch question Does greater selfdiscipline as a child lead to greater success in life as an adultHypothesis Increased delay of gratification as a child is associated with increased success later in life 2 Basicapplied cycle 31Basic research fundamental research driven by curiosity with intention to develop a body of knowledge to potentially be applied to the real world later in time32Applied research direct and immediate relevance to a real world problem33Both types are intended to complementary to one another 3 Peerreview cycle34Researcher writes journal and submits it to editor who then selects about 3 experts in the field to review the work35Blind reviews anonymous reviewing36Reviewers write up a review accepted rejected revise and submit
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