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PSYC 2001 Notes for the Course

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PSYC 2001
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2001 CFall 2012Midterm 1 Study Guide You need to be able to identify define provide examples of and apply the following conceptsMethods of KnowingoMethod of tenacity it involves holding onto methods or ideas simply because they have been accepted as such for a long time Also because of superstitionoMethod of intuition Information accepted based on a gut feelingoMethod of authority a person relies on information from an expert in subject areaoMethod of faith people who accept information based on faith This is a variant of method of authorityoRational methodAlso known as rationalism Seeks answers by using logical reasoning All 3 year old children are afraid of the dark Amy is 3 years old Amy is afraid of the dark Logical conclusion is only good if the premise has all the informationoEmpirical method Also known as empiricism Uses observation or the senses to obtain knowledge inferential reasoning oInductionAn inference that builds a general explanation based on a subset of observations The strength of induction is proportional to that of the evidenceoDeductionan inference that draws a conclusion about a specific event on the basis of a general conceptThe conclusion usually follows if the structure of the argument makes sense and if the premises are trueScience oIt is a method of knowledge acquisitionoAddresses empirically solvable problemsoUses systematic empiricismoAllows its findings to be publicly verified Goals of psychology oDescriptionoExplanation Identifying the causes of behaviouroPrediction Predictions under which a behavior will occur or notoChanges in behaviourHeuristics and biasesoRepresentativeness Heuristics The probability an event A is evaluated by the degree it represents BGamblers fallacyoAvailability heuristicthe estimation of how likely an event is to happen is judged by how easy it is to retrieve previous instances of the event from memory Forms of psychological research oBasic research Seeks answers for theoretical questionsie how is hunger controlled by the brainit can be done in a lab settingoApplied research
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