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mock 2.docx

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PSYC 2001
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1Why is external validity not crucial to most behavioral studies2In as few words as possible describe the term varianceMeasure of variability The average squared deviation of all the scores in the sample from the samples arithmetic meanGo over 15 from previous mock midterm3Explain the relationship between validity and biasBias limits validitythe ability to measure the truth within the study design Bias produces and systematic but unexpected variation in the research findings How does bias influence validity Researchers who conduct scientific studies are often motivated by external factors such as the desire to get published advance their careers receive funding or seek certain results As a consequence a significant number of scientific studies are biased and unreliableThe causes of bias can be related to the manner in which study subjects are chosen the method in which study variables are collected or measured the attitudes or preferences of an investigator and the lack of control of confounding variables in epidemiologic terms bias can lead to incorrect estimates of association or more simply the observed study results will tend to be in error and different from the true resultsSome bias in research arises from experimental error however research biases tend to arise when researchers select subjects purposefully or choose to only analyze data that is more likely to generate the results they desire4You are designing a Test to measure test anxiety in college students The test consists of 20 statements that refer to test anxiety symptoms and conditions that give rise to it Testees are asked to rate each of the statements on a discrete 7point scale where a rating of0meansthis statement doesnt describe my situation at all and a rating of6meansthis statement describes my situation exactly Your plan is to calculateThe test score as the sum of the 20 ratings Discuss the pros and cons of using this approachdo not understand this if anyone wants to explain5What are the three basic decisions one must make when considering the use of an observational research method6Describe two methods of increasing reliability of observational rating scales1 Standardize administration of measure2standardize the sample3clarify instructions and questions4Train observers
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