PSYC2001C_Intro to Research Methods_Cheryl Harasymchuk_Fall 2010( Very Useful!)

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PSYC 2001
Cheryl Harasymchuk

Research Methods CHAPTER 1 SUMMARY Knowledge is the way in which a person can know things or discover answers to problems Methods of Acquiring Knowledge 1 Tenacity Using ideas and beliefs simply because they have been accepted as facts for a long time It is based on habit or superstitionEx Two heads are better than one cross fingers for good luck opposites attractyou cannot teach old dogs new tricks It is also used a lot in advertising where the message is repeated over and overEx McDonalds Im lovin it Nike Just do itProblem There is no guarantee of accuracy2 Intuition Accepting values as valid because they feel righttrue gut feelingEx Sentenced to deathProblem There is no way of separating accurate from inaccurate3 Authority Accepting ideas from a respected sourceEx Parents textbooks doctorsProblem Source can be bias experts can be generalized4 Rationalism Accepting ideas via logic or deductionEx young children are afraid of the dark Amy is a young child Therefore Amyis afraid of the darkProblem If basic premises statement is false then the logic is off5 Empiricism Gaining knowledge by direct observation using your sensesProblem We cannot believe everything we see hear feel Optical illusionsPerceptions can be altered from previous experience feelings andorbeliefs The Scientific Method is an approach of acquiring knowledge and involves interplay of rational thought and empirical observationsRational thoughts are used to generate hypotheses and then uses hypothesis to make logical predictions that can be empirically tested by making observations The Research Process 1 Find research idea 2 Define and measure variables 3 Identify participants of subjects 4 Select research strategy 5 Select research design 6 Conduct study 7 Evaluate data 8 Report results 9 Refine hypothesis HypothesisTestable one in which all variables events and individuals are real and can be definedand observedRefutable one that can be demonstrated to be false It allows the potential for theoutcome to be different from the prediction Lecture 2 Sources of research ideasCourse work journal articles casual observations solving practical problems desire to advance theories Basic vs Applied ResearchBasic Research o Describes explains predicts behaviours o Focuses on 1 specific behaviour o Point is to solve theoretical issuesApplied Research o has direct and immediate relevance to the solution of a realworld practical problemBoth basic and applied research are complementary and are intended to advance the other Primary source o First hand report of results or observations o There are various levels of quality within primary sourcesPeer reviewed at topSecondary source o Description or summary of someones work o Can have interpretation errors What ethical guidelines do psychology researchers followThe American Psychological Association APA1 No harm 2 Informed consent 3 Obtaining conformed consent 4 DeceptionPassive deceptiono Omission or withholding informationActive deceptiono Commission or deliberately presenting false or misleading information 5 Debriefing 6 Anonyminity and confidentiality Institutional Review Board IRBCommittee of scientists and nonscientists o Group of people with different views on harm and ethicsIf fail to meet any criteria research proposal will not be approved but may give suggestionsMay ask for modifications to meet criteria ethical guideline Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUCPurpose of animal research o To understand animals o To understand humans generalize the research from animals to humans o Animals can be subjected to conditions andor procedures that cannot be used on humansthis is an area under debateie examining the effects of obesity on mortality can be done on animals such as rats but not on humansMust involve a veterinarianthere to provide info on whether the animal can go through the procedure without longterm pain etc Animals ResearchEthicsAntianimal use perspective o Humans do not have the right to treat animals differently from humansits not fair that animals should undergo more harm than humans o Animals have the right to privacy autonomy freedom from harmAnimal researchers argue o Use of animals does not constitute exploitation o Use is beneficial rather than costly for humans and animalshelps both Have researchers always used these guidelines for humans and nonhumans NO American Psychological Association APA Ethical GuidelinesWhen research first started it was up to the individual researcher to decide the ethics involvedIndividual ethics before World War II There were no actual APA guidelinesMore formalized ethics were set in place after WWII due to human experiments conducted by the Nazis o Nuremberg Code 1947named after Nazi trials Ethical guidelines for research involving humans This was the foundation for APA o Declaration of Helsinki 1963ethical considerations for medical research Before this research on psychiatric patients didnt have a say on their welfare o APA Ethical Guidelines publication 1973true enforcement of guidelines in effectPublished because of psychologist Stanley Milgramo APAs Most recent revision in 2002anti animal cruelty groups arose by this publicationNote that ethical guidelines are not fixedthey are determined within the particular situations and benefits involvedA comparison of ethical guidelines from 1963 to 2009 using the Milgram paradigmMilgram involved electric shocks so the participants thought they were shocking others This was to determine why individuals would follow orders and commit heinous crimesThe participant was subjected to a lot of psychological harmthis cant happen anymoreMilgram lost his license due to this study but it was regainedthe APA was prompted however to set up ethical guidelines Scientific Integrity 1 PlagiarismDeliberately taking ideas or data from someone else and claiming them as ones own even if cited 2 Falsifying or fabricating dataFailure to scrupulously and honestly manage dataIntegrity of data is of pivotal importance 4 Blatant Forms for Fraudulent Data 1 Researcher fabricates data eg doesnt collect it all 2 Data is collected but is altered or omitted to make things clear in favour of the researchers beliefs 3 Missing data is guessed at to have complete set of data doesnt include appropriate missing data techniques 4 Study is suppressed not released to the public because it came out the wrong way Safeguards against Fraud 1 Fraudulent results are usually not replicated by othersResearch is not made available to others in order to replicate 2 Peerreview process may detect fraud if something appears odd it will often be detectedThere was a study conducted in a tooquick manner for it to be legitimate 3 Often research is done in collaboration with other researchersothers in your lab can detect fraud and so report it Lecture 4Variables
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