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Midterm 1 Study GuidePSYC2100 Introduction to the Study of Social PsychologyFall 2013 September 6 2013 Lecture1Module 1Textbooks Definition The scientific study of how people think about influence and relate to one another Social psyc just like any other psyc uses the scientific method What is studied is what is different It looks at the person in relation to the other or a group of others Looks at person as they are influenced by or as they influence others It is not looked at in isolationActive influence we intend to influence and Passive Influence it just happensOther DefinitionsThe scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behaviour and thought in social situations Similarity still emphasis on scientific process testing theories using process etcThe scientific study of how people affect and are affected by othersGordon W Allport one of the big names in psyc the thought feeling and behaviour of individuals as shaped by the actual imagined or implied presence of others 1954 1985 The Handbook of Social PsychologySocial Psychology No Clear Definition Morton M Hunt The Story of Psychology 1993 An author An early version of Malcom Gladwell telling the story of social psychologyQ What busy and productive field of modern psychology has no clearcut identity and not even a generally accepted definitionA Social PsychologyIt is less a field than a no mans land between psychology and sociology overlapping each and also impinging on anthropology criminology several other social sciences and neuroscienceSocial Psychology No Clear Definition Morton M Hunt The Story of Psychology 1993The problem is that social psychology has no unifying concept it did not develop from the seed of a theoretical construct as did behaviourism and Gestalt psychology but grew like crabgrass in uncultivated regions of the social sciencesThe Handbook of Social Psychology The field of social psychology grew out of recognition of human diversity within cultural uniformity Talks about two big challenges recognizing cultural universals that show and define us all and within that we have individual differences Differences within and across culturesThe social psychologist typically seeks a level of generalization that falls between broad cultural abstractions and accounts of individual learning experiencesThe Handbook of Social Psychology Kurt LewinThe individual must be seen as the intersection point of a variety of pressures immediate situational demands conflicting social expectations and internalized beliefs and valuesIt is the social psychologists task to understand how the conflict among these pressures is resolvedThe direction of our lives are a result of a number of forces acting on us presently and in the past that shape the direction of your life Social Psychology vs SociologySociology is the systematic study of society This includes interactions among individuals but also relationships among nations Focus is on groups to understand observable events Might compare the relative health standing of people from different socioeconomic levelsMicrosociologists study the effects of larger society on social psychological processes The influence of others on the individualAlso focus on the role of the individual in the creation and maintenance of society How individual gives back Pretty close to social psychologistsMacrosociologists use societallevel data to explain phenomenon such as poverty rates incidence of violence or largescale social change ie changes in fertility mortality or immigrationMight make use of gigantic data pools to help us figure out what is happening within the culture ie rates of poverty etcSocial Psychology vs SociologyMacrosociology Two perspectives Structural Functionalists Emphasis on how elements of society interact in ways that help society maintain order How different organizations contribute to the social orderSocial Conflict Theorists Focus is on social inequalities ie class differenceFocus is on how members both individuals and groups are battling over limited resources Focus on inherent inequalities in a systemSocial Psychology vs SociologyExample DivorceMacrointerested in rates of divorce and how these changing divorce rates affect the institution of the family the nature of the family within society May also examine divorce rates by regionnation to understand the conditions that affect divorce rates What is happening in society to cause this etcMicrointerested in the perceived causes and outcomes of divorceMight interview divorced men and women and have them talk about the factors that lead to a divorceMight be interested in examining how these factors differ between sexes or between ethnic groupsSocial Psychologicalinterested in the cognitions and emotions connected with divorce either as cause correlate or consequenceInterested in factors such as personality and relationships personal identity factors esteem etcReturn to our DefinitionTextbooks Definition The scientific study of how people think about influence and relate to one anotherLets apply this to an example Romantic Datingscientificwould conduct experiments to learn about the processes underlying interpersonal attraction and loveinfluencethe dating individuals are influenced by one another you change them and they change youthoughts feelings and behaviourswould look at each persons thoughts about the other feelings toward the other and behaviours toward the other Physical actions and the cognitions that go along with it thoughts about the other feelings and behaviours toward themindividuals perspectivewould focus on each persons perceptions of the other the critical factor is what each person believes about the other SubjectivismWhile StudyingBeware of Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias The Iknewitallalong phenomenonBeforehand we may be uncertain of the outcome but afterward we feel that the outcome was obviousEssentially we are misremembering our prior uncertaintyOn an exam you might see absence makes the heart grow fonder and this sounds logical but what about out of sight is out of mindThus while studyingThe Study of the ObviousHindsight Bias vs ScienceAMAZE YOUR FAMILY AND FRIENDS WITH YOUR MASTERY OF THE OBVIOUSWhere Did Social Psychology Come From Norman Triplett 1898First published research article in social psychologyFound that bicyclists tended to race faster when racing in the presence of others than when simply racing against a clockLooked at a social facilitation effect The presence of others makes people perform betterMax Ringelmann 1880s but not published until 1913Found that individuals often performed worse on simple tasks ie pulling a rope when they performed the tasks with other peopleSocial loafing Effect on some tasks people performed worse when working with othersWhere Did Social Psychology Come From First two Social Psychology textbooks appeared in 1908 McDougall Ross third book published in 1924 by Floyd Allport
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