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PSYC2100 - Textbook Ch 1-8.docx

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PSYC 2100
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Chapter 1 Social PsychologySocial Psychology The scientific study of the way in which peoples thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other peopleConstrual The way people perceive comprehend and interpret the social world Often looked at as more important than studying the social world itselfIndividual Differences The aspects of peoples personalities that make the different from other peopleSociology Social PsychologyPersonality PsychologyProvides generalStudies the psychologicalStudies the characteristicsLaws and theoriesprocesses people have in that make individuals about societies notcommon with one another unique and different from individualsthat make them susceptibleone another to social influenceFundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overestimate the extent to which peoples behavior stems from internal dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factorsBehaviorism A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment that is how positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviorsGestalt Psychology A school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in peoples minds rather than the objective physical attributes of the object SelfEsteem Peoples evaluations of their own selfworththat is the extent to which they view themselves as good competent and decent People are more likely to distort their construal of the world in order to feel better about themselves than see the world accuratelySocial Cognition How people think about themselves and the social world more specifically how people select interpret remember and use social informationEvolutionary Psychology The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selectionTerror Management Theory The realization that we are going to die produces fear and people will go to great lengths to reduce this feeling People often look for salvation by looking to donate to charity or feel closer to GodChapter 2 MethodologyThe Hindsight Bias The belief that people would have been able to predict an outcome after knowing that it already occurredTheory An organized set of principles that can be used to explain observed phenomenaHypothesis A testable statement or idea about the relationship between two or more variablesObservational Method The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements of their behaviorOperational Definition The precise specification of how variables are measured or manipulated Ethnography The method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions they might haveInterjudge Reliability The level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective impressions of one individualArchival Analysis A form of the observational method whereby the researcher examines the accumulated documents or archives of a culture eg diaries novels magazines and newspapersThe Correlation Method The technique whereby researchers systematically measure two or more variables and assess the relationship between them ie how much one can be predicted from the other However the main problem with the Correlation Method is that it only shows the relationship between two variables and fails to show the influence of extraneous variablesCorrelation Coefficient A statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict on variable based on another How well you can predict peoples weight from their heightRandom Selection A way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
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