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Midterm 1_Review Notes.docx

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PSYC 2301
Patrick Hill

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INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM #1 REVIEW: February 11 Key Terms: Mediator: third variable that may explain relationships between dependant/independent variables; the mechanism(s) underlying effect eg. Social Support-> Depression social decision making confidence optimism Moderator: third variable which the effect is conditioned; determinant of effect size eg. for which group will low social support lead to more depression. Age, sex, sexual orientation -older adults benefit more from structured/existing social structure -younger, more from larger SS EXAMPLE: attending class=better grades IV: class attendance, DV: better grades Mediator: rehersal of knowledge Moderator: attentiveness Optimism Bias: most people think odds are good that you can avoid risks that may befall others. Studies show that adults and teens have similar risk taking thoughts. Primary Prevention: avoiding an ailment or injury (eg wearing seatbelts) Secondary Prevention: Identifying and addressing an issue early in the process (eg mammograms) Tertiary Prevention: Trying to contain or if possible combat the issue (eg pain medications) General Methodology Type of Study Positives Negatives Correlational -quick/easy -cannot determine causality -gives general idea of answer -dependant of accuracy of responding Longitudal: eg recording eating -better idea of causality -time consuming/costly habits over a period of time -helps rule out other -attrition rates can be high explanations Experimental -Random assignment -Don't know long term effects -Clear idea of how groups differ -Finding might not generalize outside the lab Intervention: 2 weeks, provide -Understand possible -time consuming/costly one group benefits (cost) of mechanism -can it be generalized at a larger eating pizza compared to control -learn which ind. may be more or scale? less susceptible to influence Quantitative: asking participants -insights to how people to describe life formulate their narratives -proves valuable to allow people to choose responses v leading qs -allows us to know what 'laypeople' think about specific constructs Factors Affecting a Healthy Lifestyle 1. Socioeconomic Status - lacking resources ∙ healthy foods tend to be more costly ∙ adequate options for physical activity ∙ access to health information 2. Neighbourhood - access to outdoor activities - community support for physical support (also norms/expectations) - local weather - frequency and availability of drugs 3. Ethnicity and Race - apprehensions about healthcare system - often highly correlated with SES - cultural expectations 4. Gender - women tend to engage in more health behaviour than men, seek healthcare more often - men engage in more physical activity (previous gender roles, labour jobs) - health care, promoting health behaviours, food regulations 5. Public Health - trade off between personal liberties and promoting public health - should drinking water be fluorinated? Intervention Studies - long term manipulation of independent variable where the intent is to make long lasting effects on dependant variable. ∙ One must consider: ◦ cost and ability of large scale implementation phases of study ◦ choosing right sample ◦ appropriate time frame ◦ maintaining quality control and equal doses between participants ◦ precise measurement of outcomes ◦ understanding mechanisms that account for effects at hand - Case Examples ∙ Drug Abuse Resistance Program led by police force (focuses on influencing drug attitudes, self esteem, etc) ∙ Behavioural Activation programs (planning skills, self control, etc) ◦ Question of Intervention Efficacy?  DARElittle to no utility (a) not influencing mediators or final outcome (b) negatively affects self-esteem (c) some studies suggest participants were more likely to use drugs later in life (d) US gov't withheld funding in 2007  BA (a) consistently reduces binge drinking and smoking cigarettes (b) seems to be much more promising than DARE  Why didn't DARE work? (a) issues maintaining quality control (i) volunteer bias for police> varying levels of presentation skills (b) in areas not prominent in drug use, may make students bel
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