Study Guides (248,398)
Canada (121,510)
Psychology (776)
PSYC 2400 (89)

14 Guest lecture Caleb Crime Desistance.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2400
Jenelle Power

Guest lecture: Caleb Lloyd on crime desistance Introduction - When and why do offenders stop committing crimes? - What does the ex-offender look like? What kind of behaviors, attitudes, etc. to they express? - At what point would we consider someone an “ex-offender”? TheAge-Crime Curve - Research consistently shows: • Criminal behavior peaks in late adolescence/early adulthood • Shows a sharp decline after age 30 • Peak between 18-25 years, then criminal activity quickly drops off • Refers to all crime in general - Adult criminal career: • 6 years • 17 years - Wide variation: • 4-30 years - Psychopathic offenders desist later: between the ages of 30 and 40 • Psychopaths and child molesters seem to take longer to desist How doesAge affect Crime? - Decline in physical strength • Strength – too feeble to overpower victims - Lost contact with antisocial peers (bad influences) - Maturation • Grow up / give up wild ways – maturing - Change in social/institutional environment • “a steady job and love of a good women” - Cognitive changes/changes in subjective interpretation of environment • Cognitive changes – change perspective – more research on this notion today Other Reasons BehindAge-Crime Curve - Learning to evade detection - Change from illegal to legal antisocial activities - Ongoing antisocial behavior that does not lead to arrest - Still committing bad, but not illegal crimes - Committing illegal activity that isn’t as bad (ex: stealing a stapler from work) Burn Out - Physical ageing • 50% of active offenders believed they were in worse physical condition at time of interview compared to 5 years prior • 20% of desisting offenders endorsed this belief • Many ex-offenders felt they were in better condition due to abstinence from drugs - Not as quick - Doesn’t have a lot of merit because people report feeling better when desisting crime The Genius-Age Link - Scientific productivity fades rapidly with age - Most significant contributions occur during the five years around age 30 - Increase in activity that drops off around age 35 - All males - Females had a different curve, but males was consistent - Evolutionary gender effect – men more motivated between age 18-35, whether it be for science or crime An Evolutionary Process? - Competitive effort • Leads to productivity of different kinds • Increases one’s reproductive success But, is it the same for everybody? - Where are the individual differences? • Burn out • Other biological changes • Unconscious desire for reproduction (evolutionary influences) Different Trajectories in the Curve - Late onset – consistently committing a lot of crime over their careers - Late onset still drops off around age 35 Different Trajectories within the Curve - Around 70% of offenders follow curve - 50% are in the process of desisting (giving up crime) - Age of onset important predictor in how long career lasts – finish at same age - Initial severity level and number of offences also important- start out fast/strong with more crimes mean a longer career - No smooth lines- crime is sporadic Desistance ≠ Reverse of Risk - Desistance cannot occur without history of crime - Early criminal history variables predict early adult offending, but lose predictive power - Variation in criminal career cannot be explained entirely by pre-criminal individual differences - Offenders report different risk/desistance factors - People don’t just change by getting rid of the bad influences that made them begin in the first place - Behaviors in age 20s doesn’t necessarily predict behaviors in age 30s What are the strengths? - Adult Opportunities/Variables • Substance abuse recovery • Employment • Marriage • Shifts in thinking/beliefs - Many started crimes as adolescents and desist as adults • So new processes; different effects / influences SubstanceAbuse - Giving up substances often key part of giving up crime - However, understanding the motivation & effort to become sober is not as clear cut - Recovery from addiction requires many internal & external resources/strengths - Giving up substance is a different process (requires more effort / motivation) than starting substances Desistance & Life Factors - Employment - Marriage - Consistent factors Marriage & Desistance - DifferentialAssociation • Disassociation with antisocial peers - Social Control Theory- invested in a new, crime-free life • Stakes in conformity - Quality of MaritalAttachment • Relationship quality • Only enduring marriages associated with decreases in crime - Must be a high quality / strong attachment / long relationship to help decrease crime • Marriage must last at least 5 years to have an effect - Marriage pulls people away from bad influences in their life Example: Marriage & Drug Use - More invested in relationship leads to decrea
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2400

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.