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13 Sentencing and treatment.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2400
Professor
Jenelle Power
Semester
Fall

Description
Sentencing and treatment Parole part of chapter # 9 is not on the midterm Next week’s guest lecture is on the midterm Dangerous Offenders - Adangerous offender application can be made for any offender convicted of a serious personal injury offence who constitutes a danger to others • Requires a determination of dangerousness  Dangerous offender= most serious category  Brutal crime, usually sex offenders • Indeterminate sentence  Regular institution, no end of sentence date, can apply for parole after 7 years but almost never get it - Fewer than 500 in Canada • 1 woman had lots of hostage takings/assaults while in prison - Number of dangerous offenders is increasing over time – about 25 per year Other Canadian Dangerous Offenders - Paul Carlson - Roberty Noyes - John Oughton - Michael Mundy- violent murders of university women - Wayne McConnell - Trevor Peters - Gary Walker- Canada’s worst paedophile - Thomas Svekla - Christopher Edward Newhook - Leo Teskey - Not likely to ever be rehabilitated Long-Term Offenders - The long term offender designation is relatively new to Canada - It is 1 step down from “dangerous offenders” - Must meet several criteria: • Sentence of 2+ years is appropriate • Risk of re-offending • Reasonable possibility of eventual control of risk - Receives a sentence of at least 2 years followed by a period of supervision - Finishes sentence but then has a 10 year period added on where they’re under correctional supervision - Most commonly sex offenders - In practice, people can have shorter than a 2 year sentence - Determinant sentence - Can reintegrate into the community better than dangerous offenders Russell Williams - 2 life sentences with no chance of parole for 25 years • Murdered 2 women; deviant sexual offender - He is in Kingston Penetentiary - Prohibited for life from possessing weapons - Registered for life as a sex offender - Submit DNAsamples to the police data bank - Pay $100 victim surcharge for each charge for each of 88 charges ($8,800) • He was convicted of breaking into 88 houses Incarceration Rates – 2008/2009 - What percentage of our population we put in prison • Canada on the high end compared to other western countries Trends in Canada’s incarceration rate - Rates of incarceration in Canada are increasing slightly • Could be due to number of people held in remand while awaiting trial - Number of people in federal institutions Incarceration in USA - Mandatory sentencing, war on drugs, less chance of parole, 3 felony charges- automatically sent to federal prison • All contributors to increase in incarceration rates What about the death penalty? - Abolished in Canada in 1976 Death Penalty - In U.S.A. - 1976 to 2010/2011 – 1,272 executions - 34 states have the death penalty - 3,251 waiting on death row - Average wait is 12 years (longest 32 years) - Series of appeals drag out execution • Could serve a life sentence before being executed - Cant use for juveniles or those who cant understand what execution is Death Penalty: Pros and Cons - Support • Reduce cost of keeping someone in jail • Deterrent? • Cant commit more crimes if killed • Increases perception of criminal justice system taking crime seriously - Challenge • Wrongful convictions • Not a deterrent • Ethics/value of a person’s life • High cost of trials/appeals True or False - The death penalty saves taxpayers money because it is cheaper to execute someone than to keep them in prison for the rest of their life. - FALSE. Costs about 2 million more Characteristics of death row offenders - 98.9% male - Age range 18 to 85 years old - 64% prior felony conviction - 44% White, 42% African-American - 30% low IQ “mentally retarded” - High rates: depression, anxiety, schizophrenia - Number of executions total is declining in the USA - Black men with white victim= more likely to get a death sentence - American numbers - 60% in favor, but it is decreasing - Canadian numbers - About 50% in favor, but it is decreasing - Different across the country - Strongest support in Saskatchewan, lowest in Quebec (very liberal) Death Row Syndrome - Michael Ross • Serial killer in the US. Murdered 8 women - Originally appealed a lot, then gave up and accepted the death penalty • Questioned his mental state - Executed, May 13, 2005 after 17 yrs on death row Aboriginal Overrepresentation - Refers to the disproportionate number ofAboriginals involved in the criminal justice system • Aboriginals make up approximately 3% of the Canadian population, but account for 17% of adults admitted into remand - The problem is more severe in the Prairie provinces - Alot of young aboriginals are getting involved with crime - Higher proportion of aboriginals (consistently) kept in prison Explanations forAboriginal Overrepresentation - There are several possible explanations: • Ahigher Aboriginal crime rate  More serious crimes  Many possible contributing factors • Criminal justice practices that penalizeAboriginal people - Bill C-41 • Alternatives to imprisonment should be considered for all offenders  Particular attention to circumstances ofAboriginal offenders - Penalize aboriginals unfavorably? - More likely to be poor - High rates of abuse, unemployment, etc… Aboriginal Courts - Informed by aboriginal issues
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