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21 Sexual and homidical offenders.docx

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PSYC 2400
Jenelle Power

Sexual & homicidal offenders Definition of SexualAssault - Any nonconsensual sexual act by either a male or female person to either a male or female person, regardless of the relationship between the people involved - Three levels: • Simple sexual assault- max is 10 years. Ex: exposure, watching people undress, non- violent • Sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm- max is 14 years • Aggravated sexual assault- max is life in prison - Very specific because it used to be that a man couldn’t be charged for sexually assaulting his wife Extent of Sexual Offending in Canada - 20,992 sexual assaults in 2008 • 98% were level 1 • Declining since 1993 - Inaccurate official estimates because majority of victims do not report crime - Victimization surveys indicate high rates of victimization - Most aren’t severe - Most aren’t reported- too minor to bother reporting, people are embarrassed Classification Sexual Offenders - Voyeurs- watching someone - Exhibitionists- exposure to strangers - Rapists - Pedophiles- just interested; not necessarily any sexual contact - Child Molesters- under 16; involves touching/sexual contact • Intra-familial (incest offender) • Extra-familial Rapist Typologies: MTC:R3 (Revised Rapist Typology) 1. Opportunistic- opportunity presents itself; general criminal, not just a rapist 2. Pervasively angry- high anger towards anyone; unnecessary force; cause lots of injury 3. Sexual- driven by fantasies 4. Sadistic- sadistic sexual fantasies (enjoy inflicting pain). Uncommon 5. Vindictive- angry at women, want to degrade women Rapist Typologies Groth (1979) 1. Anger rapist- a lot of force; anger towards women. 50% of rapes 2. Power rapist- asserts dominance/control, modify amount of force by how much the women fights back. 40% of rapes 3. Sadistic rapist- extreme violence, torture, death. 5% of rapes - 5% of rapes unclassified Child Molester Typologies Groth et al. (1982) 1. Fixated child molesters- primary sexual attraction to children for most of their life • Little or no sexual contact with adults, so usually single • Emotionally immature, don’t establish good adult relationships • No remorse/stress 2. Regressed child molesters- attracted to adults but also children, usually offences caused by some event; feel inadequate; impulsive; alcohol/substance abuse; feel remorse - Subdivided into 2 types based on coercion: • Sex-pressure grooming, buying gifts, etc • Sex-force: Exploitative type and sadistic type threatens child, forces them to do sexual acts Adolescent Sex Offenders - Adolescents commit: • 20% of rapes • 30-50% of child sexual abuse • History of sexual abuse history is common • Victims tend to be young females (<9 years old) - Likely to target child females - Many don’t continue this behavior when they grow up Female Sex Offenders - Only 2-5% of incarcerated sex offenders are female - Four types proposed byAtkinson (1996): • Teacher/lover- female teacher, students say they don’t feel victimized; female abuse substances • Male-coerced- male forcing female to participate or not report • Male-accompanied- women participating with less force – ex. Karla Homolka • Predisposed- serious history of sexual / physical abuse; violent; target young children Treatment of sexual offenders - Most treatment programs focus on: • Recognizing denial, minimizations, and cognitive distortions • Empathy • Social skills • Substance abuse problems • Modifying deviant sexual interests • Relapse prevention - Many offenders are in denial, try to rationalize or minimize their behavior- don’t see it as dangerous Effectiveness of Treatment with Sex Offenders - Lack of consensus about whether treatment is effective - Incarceration is not a deterrent - Hanson et al. (2002) showed: • Sexual recidivism rates lower for treated offenders (both adolescent and adult) • Both institutional and community treatment effective • Cognitive-behavioral treatment associa
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