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PSYC 2400 Comprehensive Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2400
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Forensic Psychology Exam ReviewLecture Six Jury DecisionMakingSummary Offences less serious tried by a judge onlyIndictable Offences more serious typically tried by a juryHybrid Offences can be tried as either summary or indictable judge or jury depending on which route you goFunctions of a JuryDecide facts from trial evidenceEducation for the citizens about the justice systemCommunity consciousnessNOT sentencingJury nullification not voting guilty when it is clear the law was broken Ex AbortionCharacteristics of a JuryRepresentativeness represent the community in which the crime was committedImpartial not biasedoAttitudinal prejudiceoBehavioural discriminationoCognitive StereotypesPeople who can be excluded from jury duty police officers EMS young people lawyers judgesSources of Juror Bias1Interest Prejudice interest in the case Ex Family member friend certain company2Specific Prejudice attitudes about the specific case Ex Paul Bernardo case3Generic Prejudice biased toward specific groups or crime Ex Ethnic groups child pornography crime4Normative Prejudice community sentimentvalue Ex Hatred towards logging companies deciding a case in BCImpartialityFor a juror to be impartial he or she must set aside any preexisting biases prejudices or attitudes and judge the case based solely on the admissible evidenceTo be impartial also means that the juror must ignore any information that is not part of the admissible evidenceIt is also important that the juror have no connection to the defendant so that the juror does not view the evidence subjectively or unduly influence other jurorsPresumptions of ImpartialityLimits on pretrial publicityLimits on discussions by jurors12 person juries to cancel out biasesReminders about sworn oathsDo Safeguards make a differenceKramer et alReceiving biasing information before viewing a trial can increase guilty jury verdictsInstructions to ignore pretrial publicity does not significantly influence jury verdictsOvercoming PartialityAdjournment delaying the trialChange of venue demonstrate that there is a reasonable likelihood that the community is biased against the defendantChallenge for cause an option to reject biased jurorsTwo Approaches to Jury Selection from the US1Broad attitudes and traitsoDefence or prosecution biases oExample Juror Bias Scale prodefence or proprosecution2Casespecific ApproachoSpecific attitudesoAsk questions about specific case to identify demographic profilersExample The Harrisburg SevenStudying Juror BehaviourInterviews with jurors USArchival recordsSimulation techniquesField studiesModels of Jury DecisionMaking1Mathematical models precise and testable not realistic or intuitively appealingEx Kassin and WrightsmanVerdict is the result of two judgements oLikelihood of commission DNAno alibiwitnessoThreshold of reasonable doubt If the likelihood of commission is GREATER than the threshold of reasonable doubtguilty verdict2Explanation based models realistic and intuitively appealing not precise or testableEx Pennington and HastieoJurors organize the information presented at trial into a storyoJudge provides the jurors with relevant law and verdict optionsoJurors find the best fit between story and verdict optionsInfluences on Jury DecisionMakingActual trial evidenceWay evidence in presentedBeliefs of jurorsAttitudes towards crimecriminalPresence of expert witnessesComprehension of trialoComprehension aids pretrial instructions to jurors juror notetaking juror question asking
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