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Post Midterm notes.docx

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PSYC 2400
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ndOCT222012PostMidtermNotesChildVictimsWitnessesChapter6Children recall fewer descriptors than adultsAge 6 to 71 descriptorAge 10 to 11221 descriptorsAdults 18 and older8 descriptorsNot as good or able to remember as many descriptors as adults Children tend to recall more exterior items Eyes and nose would not be recognized as much Recall MemoryMost likely report exterior itemsInterior features less frequent and more problematicMore difficulty with height weight and ageWhy cannot understand the relationship between height and weight they dont have enough experience Become better with age More body conscious with age and pay more attention Children Eyewitnesses Children provide less detailed information but are as accurateSuggestibility children are more suggestible than adults The degree to which childrens testimony can be influencedChildren are more likely to be influenced by misleading informationRepeating questionsChildren asked the same question accuracy dropsRapportChild is more likely to give incorrect information to misleadingsuggestive questions in warm supportive atmosphere by adultsChildren understand difference in relationships and may change their answer to please certain people Format of questions matter Free recall is best with children Sam Stone StudyLeichtmanCici 19953 and 4 year olds vs 5 and 6 year oldsStranger came to visit daycare 2 minConditionsControl free recall only Stereotype received preevent informationSuggestion Was asked suggestive questions and see if they would add that same info post manipulation False info Stereotypesuggestion Sam Stonefalse reports34 year oldsControl Free narrative 0Specific questions 10 offalse evidenceStereotype Free narrative0Specific questions37 of false evidence but did not report the misinformationSuggestion Free Narrative21Specific question53 of false evidenceSuggestionStereotype Free Narrative46Specific question 72 of false evidenceInterview TechniquesAnatomically Detailed DollsAssumed to allow children to give information they would not provide orally Children might have difficulty taking about these details Problems Research does not support this assumptionNo standardization of dolls or how to assess a childs behaviour with the dolls Stepwise Interview mostly used in Canada RapportDiscussion of truth promotes more free recall Assessment of cognitiveverbal skillsIntroducing topic of concernDo you know why you are talking with me todayHas anything happened to you whom you would like to tell me StepWise Interview ComponentsFree narrativeReport everythingQuestioning phaseGeneralSpecificInterview aids drawing puppets dollsNarrative Elaboration FREE NARRATIVE BEST APPROACH Participants people card how they looked and tell a story using the cardSettingActionConversationDifferent categories and telling a story Seeing a difference un recall but not necessarily false recall CriterionBased Content Analysis CBCA 1950 Seeing distinction of false and true statements amount vs qualityoften part of content validity Udo Undeutsch Statements that are the product of experience will contain characteristics that are generally absent from statements that are the product of imaginationGeneral characteristics 3 criteria logical structuremight be used in terms of sexual abusedUnstructured productioncannot sound rehearsed things might not be true Jumping from topic to topic quantity of detailsyounger gives less details difficult to determine Specific content 10 criteriareproduction of speech child should be able to say what the offender actually saidunexpected complicationsinterruptions can happen harder for kids to make those upaccurately reported detail misunderstoodmight not be aware of what everything meansMotivationrelated content 5 criteriaspontaneous correction more corrections tend to be more accurate storyadmitting lack of memorytrue memory might not allow for proper memoryOffenserelated elements 1 criteria not in book details characteristics of offense progressionperpetrator will do grooming recalling it might be true escalation as well higher score is better each criteria is based from 0 to 2 scale Lab StudyYuille 1988Stellar 198969 year olds in BCtell true story given false story to telltype of storiesdirectly involvednegative emotional stateloss of controlYuille 1988 Results 11 of CBCA criteria more often seen in true stories as compared to false stories 83of true stories identified 58of false stories identifiedField Study Lamb et al 199798 alleged victims of child sexual abuseground truth based on independent evidenceconfirmed group n76doubtful group n13questionable n9excluded Results 14 of the CBCA criteria scoredconfirmed M67doubtful M48Might not be the best way to see that if it is the best way to differentiate the method Seeing which criteria of CBCA is best more problems with younger children They have not established a true cut off score that will determine the value of these criteria Havent found the method to see the difference between a distorted memory because they cannot remember correctly or false information lie Recognition MemoryTargetpresent lineup Adult and children have same accuracyTargetabsent lineup Children are more likely to identify an innocent person as compared to adults were problems start harder to reject the line up Might because of social pressure please the adult More cognitive processes Might be bothThe Elimination LineupAll pictures in the lineup are presented to the child and they are asked to select the one that looks most like the culprit relative judgmentThe child is then asked to compare hisher memory to the selected photograph and determine if the person is the culprit absolute judgment
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