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Midterm 1 Review Notes.docx

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PSYC 2500
Tina Daniels

Developmental Psychology Midterm 1 Key Concepts Critical Period: time during which a child is ready and able to learn something Imprinting: forming an emotional bond between child and the first moving object (usually the mother) Blastocyst: the fertilized egg 4 days after conception, which consists of about 100 cells and resembles a hollow ball Germ disc: a small cluster of cells near the centre of the zygote that develops into the baby Placenta: the structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the developing child Age of viability: occurs at 22 to 28 weeks and fetus has a chance to survive Duola: acts like a ‘coach’ during labour and delivery Midwife: provides care throughout the pregnancy and even after the birth Theories in Child Development Psychodynamic Perspective Development is determined by how a child resolves conflict at different ages. - Freud ∙ 3 components of personality: id, ego, superego ∙ during each psychosexual stage of development, different parts of the body are the focus of pleasure ◦ Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital - Erikson ∙ stages of psychosocial development defined by a unique challenge ◦ each stage involves a crisis that must be resolved  eg autonomy v shame and doubt Learning Perspective Early learning theories emphasized the importance of experience in development. - Classical Conditioning ∙ WatsonLittle Albert ∙ PavlovSalivating dog - B.F Skinner studied operant conditioning (reinforcement and punishment. Other learning theorists suggest that children learn through observing others - Iminitation or Observational Learning - Bandura's Social Cognitive theory, self-efficacy of the children influences their behaviour ∙ self-efficacy determines whether the child will imitate others or not. (eg BoBo doll) Cognitive-Developmental Perspective Development reflects children's efforts to understand the world. Children naturally try to make sense of their world. - Jean Piaget ∙ 4 stage sequence that characterizes children's changing understanding of the world ◦ Sensorimotor ◦ Preopera
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