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Child Development Exam Review 1.docx

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PSYC 2500
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Child Development Exam ReviewBiological TheoriesAccording to Biological theories development happens based on a biological timeline Two subtheories within the Biological Theories oMaturation Theory child development reflects a specific plan within the bodyoEthological Theory believe that many behaviours are adaptive ie babies clinging to mothers crying Two important concepts for Ethological Theory Imprinting forming an emotional bond between the child and the first moving objectCritical Period the time frame in which a child is ready to learnPsychodynamic TheoriesDevelopment is based on how a child resolves conflict in different agesFreuds Psychosexual Development Theory personality includes three primary components that emerge at distinct agesoThe ID present at birth the ID presses for immediate gratification of bodily needs and wants ie hungeroThe Ego practical rational component of personality emerges during the first year ego tries to resolve conflicts that occur when the ID is giving impulsive demands ie child wants toy other child has the ID is telling child to grab toy away but ego tells him to wait his turn Ego determines more socially acceptable way to handle conflictsoThe Superego the moral agent present during preschool years children begin to internalize adult standards of right and wrong ie when child is finished playing with their toy another childs Id tells them to grab the toy and run but the superego reminds the child that it would be wrong to do so so child leaves toy as it isEriksons Psychosocial Development Theorysame concept as Freud but proposed that development could continue into adulthood Also proposed that earlier stages of development provide the foundation for the later stages Erickson also provided the idea that conflicts can be social not just biological Learning TheoryExpresses the importance of experience environmental factors and reinforcement and imitationClassical Conditioning pairing a stimuli to a response ie Little Albert paired a white rat with loud noise that scared infant Did this so many times that when Albert saw white rat but with no noise he was scared of the rat because he paired together that loud noise and white rat is scary Operant Conditioning consequences of behaviour determine whether or not that behaviour will be repeated in the future oPositive Reinforcement giving a reward to increase the likelihood of repeating a previous behaviouroNegative Reinforcement rewarding people by taking away negative things ie if you clean room you wont have to do dished or laundryoPunishment a consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behaviour happening again in the future Social Modeling child imitating adult ie Bobo Doll adult would enter room full of children and either play nice with doll or beat it after adult left children would play with doll in the same fashion adult had previously doneChildren try to make sense of the world around them How a child thinks and acts can determine their behaviourContextual TheoryMost environmentally focusedInterCultural Differences Individualistic every man for themselves vs Collectivist care for others ie ChinaIntraCultural Differences gender rollsThemesNature vs Nurture what roles do naturebiological and nurture environment play in child development Both have an equal roll
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