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Midterm

PSYC 2700 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Long-Term Memory, Sensory Memory, Saccade

by OneClass83840 , Fall 2013
10 Pages
308 Views
Fall 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2700
Professor
Chris Herdman
Study Guide
Midterm

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COGNITIVE PSYC 2700:
MULTI-STORE MODEL
ATKINSON & SHIFFRIN (1968)
(See p. 43 textbook ) figure 2.3 - outline (copy in notebook) information processing, info flowing
through our system, idea of different memory structures
Environmental input: get info from environment and comes in from the sensory registers (same as
sensory memory) first memory system and gets passed onto the next memory system (short term
store or working memory) where it is temporarily stored then it gets transferred into long term
store (long term memory) which is the last memory system
- a lot of memory is focused on vision
3 Memory information processing structures:
Sensory Memory (Registers)
Short-Term Store
Long-Term Store
---- memory goes through these 3 systems in order (see chart)
How to Differentiate the Stores:
Encoding
Duration - how long the memory is stored
Capacity - how big the storage is
Type of Code(s) - where the memory is stored
BASICS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION (See p. 75-81 textbook )
Sensation
Reception of stimulation from environment
Initial encoding into nervous system
- gather and receive info from the environment
Perception
Process of interpreting sensory information
- follows sensation, process by where we do some interpretation of the sensation
system (understanding at a conscious level) impose some type of coding
Sensory Structure (Fig. 3.1, p.77)
Light waves projected onto retina (back of the eye) reflects off of the back of the eye
rods, cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
rods/cones back layer of neurons
1’st to be stimulated by light waves
neural firing pattern from rod/cones to bipolar cells, and then to
ganglion cells
axons of ganglion cells form bundle called optic nerve
nerve projects back to send neural message to visual cortex in
occipital lobe
1 degree = thumbs width
Fovea area of the eye - colour vision
RODS - black, white and grey
CONES - colour
energy waves go all the way to the back of the retina and activate the rods and cones
project onto the next layer of cells (bipolar cells)
Compression
Only fraction of light waves reaches retina
120M rods, 7M cones, only 1M ganglion
some cones have own bipolar
but, many rods converge onto 1 bipolar
convergence especially in 20+ degrees (don't need lots of detail in your peripheral,
just need movement)
How Is Information Gathered?
Series of fixation-saccade cycles
- move our eyes around, in certain ways and in certain control... we move our eyes in a
series of jittery movements
Saccades (when your eyes are moving and nothing comes in - just a blur)
Eyes move in jerky patterns
Not smooth continuous
variable: 25 ms 175 ms (for each move)
nothing “seen” during saccade
blurry
no information coming in
Fixations (when our eyes stop moving and look or watch something still allowing them
to pick up information)
Eyes pause to foveate and take in information
Fovea is where highest resolution in eye
SENSORY MEMORY (also known as Sensory Registers)
Neural activation in retina is brief
Terminates with external stimulation
But, perception of event persists after stimulus is terminated (continuous image)
Implies a memory system
Vision - iconic sensory memory
Audition - echoic sensory memory
etc. - 1 per sense
ENCODING
Quest: How does info accumulate in SM?

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Description
COGNITIVE PSYC 2700: MULTI-STORE MODEL ATKINSON & SHIFFRIN (1968) (See p. 43 textbook ) figure 2.3 - outline (copy in notebook) information processing, info flowing through our system, idea of different memory structures Environmental input: get info from environment and comes in from the sensory registers (same as sensory memory) first memory system and gets passed onto the next memory system (short term store or working memory) where it is temporarily stored then it gets transferred into long term store (long term memory) which is the last memory system - a lot of memory is focused on vision 3 Memory information processing structures:  Sensory Memory (Registers)  Short-Term Store  Long-Term Store ---- memory goes through these 3 systems in order (see chart) How to Differentiate the Stores:  Encoding  Duration - how long the memory is stored  Capacity - how big the storage is  Type of Code(s) - where the memory is stored BASICS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION (See p. 75-81 textbook ) Sensation  Reception of stimulation from environment  Initial encoding into nervous system - gather and receive info from the environment Perception  Process of interpreting sensory information - follows sensation, process by where we do some interpretation of the sensation system (understanding at a conscious level) impose some type of coding Sensory Structure (Fig. 3.1, p.77)  Light waves projected onto retina (back of the eye) reflects off of the back of the eye  rods, cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells  rods/cones back layer of neurons  1’st to be stimulated by light waves  neural firing pattern from rod/cones to bipolar cells, and then to ganglion cells  axons of ganglion cells form bundle called optic nerve  nerve projects back to send neural message to visual cortex in occipital lobe 1 degree = thumbs width Fovea area of the eye - colour vision RODS - black, white and grey CONES - colour energy waves go all the way to the back of the retina and activate the rods and cones project onto the next layer of cells (bipolar cells)  Compression  Only fraction of light waves reaches retina  120M rods, 7M cones, only 1M ganglion  some cones have own bipolar  but, many rods converge onto 1 bipolar  convergence especially in 20+ degrees (don't need lots of detail in your peripheral, just need movement) How Is Information Gathered?  Series of fixation-saccade cycles - move our eyes around, in certain ways and in certain control... we move our eyes in a series of jittery movements  Saccades (when your eyes are moving and nothing comes in - just a blur)  Eyes move in jerky patterns  Not smooth continuous  variable: 25 ms – 175 ms (for each move)  nothing “seen” during saccade  blurry  no information coming in  Fixations (when our eyes stop moving and look or watch something still allowing them to pick up information)  Eyes pause to foveate and take in information  Fovea is where highest resolution in eye SENSORY MEMORY (also known as S
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