Final Exam Definition List
• Encoding specific – The principle that we learn information together with its
context. This means that presence of the context can lead to enhanced memory for
• Generation effec Memory for material is better when a person generates the
material him or herself, rather than passively receiving it
• Levels of processing (LOP [Refer to page 174]
• Maintenance rehearsal [Refer to page 173] – Rehearsal that involves repetition
without any consideration of meaning or making connections to other information.
It helps maintain info in the STM, but doesn’t help in transferring info to the
• Elaborative Rehearsa Rehearsal that involves thinking about the meaning of an
item to be remembered or making connections between that item and prior
knowledge. This is a better method of transferring info to the LTM.
• Consolidation The process that transforms new memories into a state in which
they are more resistant to disruption.
• Reconsolidation A process proposed by Nader and others. It occurs when a
memory is reactivated. This process is similar to the consolidation that occurs
after initial learning, although it apparently occurs more rapidly.
• Transfer appropriate processin When the type of task that occurs during
encoding matches the type of task that occurs during retrieval. This type of
processing can result in enhanced memory.
• Autobiographical memory – Recollected events of a person’s past
• Flashbulb memory Brown & Kulik proposed the term to refer to a person’s
memory for the circumstances surrounding hearing about shocking, highly
charged events. They proposed that these flashbulb memories are vivid and
detailed, like photographs.
• Misinformation effec Misleading information presented after a person witnesses
an event can change how the person describes that event later. • Misleading postevent information (MPI): The misleading information that causes
the misinformation effect.
• Source misattributio Occurs when the source of a memory is misidentified.
Equivalent to source monitoring error
• Source monitoring: The process by which people determine the origins of
memories, knowledge, or beliefs. Remembering that you heard about something
from a particular person would be an example of source monitoring.
• Source monitoring error Misidentifying the source of a memory (equivalent to
• Back propagation – the process by which error signals are sent back to the hidden
and representation units to