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Midterm #1 Notes

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Carleton University
PSYC 2800
Kim Hellemans

Biological Foundations of Behaviour Midterm #1 TERMS Materialism: behavior can be explained by nervous system without immaterial mind..supported by Darwin and Alfred Wallace Natural selection: variational traits that increase fitness will increase chance of survival Sexual selection: each sex has anatomical and behavioural features that increase reproductive success, eg peacock feathers Common ancestor: a forbearer from which two or more lineages or family groups arise Eg humans and apes...can trace lineage by looking at genes etc Taxonomy: branch of bio concerned with naming and classifying species (group orgs with common characteristics)...useful for helping us trace evolution of brain and cells Cladogram: displays groups of related organisms as branches of a tree Chordate features: crossed nervous system, spinal cord lies behind heart and gut Principle of Proper Mass: Body sized, and complexity of behaviour used to determine index to predict brain size. Brain weight/ (body weigh⁶⁹=EQ Meninges: 3 protective layers of tissue Dura mater: tough out later of fibrous tissue Arachnoid layer: thin sheet of delicate connective tissue Pia mater: moderately tough inner layer that clings to brain surface Sub arachnoid place: between arachnoid layer and pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid: nacl and other salts, cushions brain , fills ventricles and circulates around brain and spinal cord White Matter: rich in fat-sheathed neural axons Grey Matter: predominately composed of cell bodies and blood vessels Ventricles: cavity of brain with cbspinal fluid..left right 3rd and 4th Corpus Collosum: fiber system connecting the two hemispheres, (corpus collosectomy, sever this..can sometimes help epilepsy) Neuron: carry out brain's major functions, approx 80 mil, 3 types ◦ Sensory: brings info to central nervous system (afferent) ◦ Interneurons: associate sensory and motor activity within the CNS ◦ Motor: send signals from brain and spinal cord to muscles (efferent) Glial Cells: aids and moderates neurons activities, have important immune function, insulates neurons etc. Approx 100 mill, 5 types ∙ Ependymal Cells: small and found in walls of ventricles. Makes and secretes CSF. ∙ Astrocyte Cells: star shaped & symmetrical, provide structural support for neurons, generally transports substances between neurons and capillaries, form scar tissue and enhance brain activity by providing fuel to active regions of brain ∙ Microglia (small glia): originate in blood as offshoot of immune system, survive through process called phagocytosis (scavenging debris such as dead cells) ∙ Oligodendroglia Cell: only found in CNS, provide myelin ∙ Schwann Cell: provide myelin in PNS Nucleus: groups of cells forming a cluster that can be identified with specific stains Nerve: grouping of axons outside CNS Tract: large collection of axons within CNS Cranial Nerve: 12 in total. Pairs of nerves (one on each side of body) that are responsible for a specific function. They exit brain and make contact with other parts of the body to perform their function Spinal Nerves: have efferent ventral (carry info from brain to SC and muscles) and afferent dorsal fibers (carry info away from receptors to the spine) Dermatome: area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single spinal cord dorsal root Automatic Nervous System: 2 features..Sympathetic (arouses body for action), Parasympathetic (prepares body to rest and digest). Dendrites: gather info from other neurons Dendrite spines: protrude from dendrite in order to increase surface area so that it can receive more info from axons Cell body or soma: core region contains the nucleus and integrates the info Axon: carries info to be passed on to the other cells Axon hillock: juncture of soma and axon where the action potential begins..usually triangular Axon collaterals: branch of an axon Teleodendria: end branches of axon Terminal button: knot at the tip of axon that conveys info to other neurons (or end foot) Synapse: gap between one neuron and another neuron, usually between an end foot of one neuron and a dendritic spine of another neuron. Chimeric animals: have genes from 2 different species Transgenic animals: gene is added to genome and is passed along and expressed in subsequent generations Knockout tech: method used to inactivate a gene so that it is not expressed..potential application to human genetic disorders channel: opening in a protein embedded in the cell membranes that allows passage of ions gate: protein embedded in cell membrane that allow substances to pass only when open pump: protein embedded in a cell membrane across the membrane that actively transports a substance across the membrane...requires energy Oscilloscope: a sensitive voltmeter to measure the very small and rapid changed in electrical current that come from an axon microelectrode: small electrode used to record electric potentials from living cells...inside the cell Resting Membrane Potential: difference in electrical potential between outside and inside cell, ~-70mv, exists because + and - ions are unequal on two sides of membrane Ions: atoms that has gained or lost an electron ∙ Anion: Negative Ion eg Chloride, Cl- ∙ Cation: positive eg Potassium, K+ Diffusive forces: ions in random motions move down a concentration gradient..tend to move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration differential permeability: ions pass through ion rest membrane is totally resistant to protein ions, very resistant to Na+, and slightly to K+ and Cl- electrostatic pressure: like charges repel; opposite charges attract Sodium-Potassium Pump: protein found in membrane of all cells that exchanges 3 Na+ ions (out) for K+ ions (in) ..Na+ leaks in so this helps maintain negative change inside Common Synapses: ∙ axo-dendritic: axon terminal synapses on a dendrite or dendritic spine ∙ axosomatic: synapse onto cell body ∙ axo-axonic: between two axons, mediates presynaptic inhibition ∙ dendro-dendritic: between two dendrites, found primarily in olfactory bulb Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potentials (EPSPs): depolarisation of cell, caused by excitatory messages, gain + cells inside..this increases probability of neuron firing Inhibitory PSPs: hyperpolarisation of cell, caused by inhibitory messages, loss of - cells inside..this decreases probability of neuron firing Action Potential: sudden reversal in membrane potential ( from - to +) brief increase in Na+, followed by increase of K+ being allowed through cell membrane. Summation: ∙ Spatial Summation: more EPSPs that are close together (closer to axon hillock, more likely to create AP), all these PSPs are summed together to create an even greater charge on membrane potential. If sum of PSPs can depolarize cell, leads to AP ∙ Temporal Summation: inputs that arrive close in time are summed. Closer in time, greater chance of AP, but cannot have EPSP + IPSP from same input! Absolute refractory period: 1-2ms after AP, another AP cannot be generated Relative refractory period: AP can only be elicited by high levels of stimulation Neurotransmitter (n-t): chemical released by a neuron onto a target with excitatory or inhibitory effects, located outside NS, many circulate in the blood Synapse: Presynaptic membrane: output side of synapse Postsynaptic Membrane: membrane on transmitter input side Synaptic Cleft: Gap that separates the presynaptic membrane from the postsynaptic membrane Synaptic Vesicles: holds neurotransmitters in cell Storage Granule: compartment that holds several vesicles contained n-t Auto-Receptors: on pre-synaptic membrane that responds to the transmitter released by the neuron Rate-Limiting Factor: any enzyme that is in limited supply and therefore resrticts the pace that the chemical can be synthesized. Hibituation: the more a stimulus is presented, creates learning behaviour. eg Gill withdrawal response Sensitization: learning that develops when the stimulus presented to stronger than normal or novel. eg electric schock therepy Associative Learning: linkage of two more unrelated stimuli to elicit a behavioural response Long-Term Potentiation: response to stimulation at a synapse, changed amplitude of an excitatory postSP that last for hours to days or longer..plays a part in AL and occurs in Hippocampus. Bliss and Lomo, 1973 suggested a physical change at the synapse might be related to everyday learning. HISTORY Hippocrates Father of modern medical ethics. First to describe effects of head injuries 4 humours: (excess of) Black bile = depressive, Yellow bile = mood swings, Phlegm = ‘sluggish’, Sanguine (blood) = optimistic; tendency for mania Aristotle Mentalism: An explanation of behavior as a function of the nonmaterial mind. Psyche: Synonym for mind; an entity once proposed to be the source of human behavior Galen Correctly identified 7 of 12 cranial nerves Renaissance (``Re-Birth``) DaVinci laid the foundations for anatomical drawings Rene Descartes Dualism: Mind and brain are separate "I think therefore I am cogito Ergo-sum" Luigi Galvani Demonstrated that nerves conduct electricity. Studied the sciatic nerve in a frogs leg 1800's localization of function: hypothetically the control of each kind of behaviour by a different specific brain area Franz Gall Phrenology: Mental and moral faculties determined by shape of skull Pierre Flourens Advocate of experimental ablation: remove part of brain and observe which behaviours remain. Falsely believed we only use 10-20% of our brain Paul Broca Observed stroke patient who had lost ability to speak Patient "Tan". Concluded area important for speech production: Broca’s Aphasia William James Modern approach to biological psychology. Concepts of consciousness and human experience described as properties of the nervous system Wilder Penfield Neurosurgeon procedure to treat intractable epilepsy. Stimulated brain with electrical probes to observe their responses. Mapped out ‘homunculus’ Donald O. Hebb Father of modern behavioural neuroscience . Hebb Rule: “What fires together, wires together.” Eric Kandel Nobel Prize (2000) for research in nerve transduction: Molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory Sea Slug EVOLUTION OF THE BRAIN 1. Australopithecines were hominids, made and used tools - reduced necessity for large jaws and teeth - allow room for brain to grow - "Lucy" 2. H. Habillus evolved, larger brains and smaller teeth/jaw 3. H. Erectus, elaborate tools, fire and hunted - expanded over 3 continents ∙ capability of mapping and memory of space 4. H. Sapiens, brain reaches modern levels - more folding of brain=increase surface area without compromising volume 5. Humans - increase mainly in cerebellum ∙ resulted in increased convolutions - differences are in actual and relative size of regions eg olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex - human neurons are larger WHY DID THE BRAIN ENLARGE? 1. Primitive lifestyle - forging behaviour of primates is more complex ∙ finding fruit is more difficult than grass..sensory, spatial and memory skills - fruit eaters have larger brains 2. Changes in Hominid Physiology - Radiator Hypothesis (Falk 1990) ∙ bigger engines need bigger radiator to cool it ∙ more active brain generates more heat ∙ homo species' skulls allow blood flow to be more widely dispersed whic
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