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Carleton University
PSYC 2800
Kim Hellemans

Biological Foundations of Behaviour Midterm #2 Material Ethology: study of animal behaviour Ablation: removal or destruction of tissue Bregma: used as a reference point to map out brain locations Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: non-invasive procedure in which a magnetic coil is placed over skull to stimulate brain. Brain Electrical Activity: measures summations of graded potentials from thousands of neurons, changes as behaviour changes Event Related Potentials: complex waveforms related in time to a specific sensory event. To counter the effects of noise, stimulus is presented repeatedly and recorded responses are averaged Magnetoenvechalogy: magnetic potentials recorded from detectors outside the skull, can see 3D image Computerized Tomography: x-ray beam projected through head of patient to detector ,series of photos at each axis yield a 30 rep Magnetic Response Imaging: pass patient by strong magnetic field to produce a 3D static image by measuring the radiation emitted by each hydrogen atom Functional MRI: change in elements such as iron and oxygen measure the performance of a behaviour. Position Emission Tomography: detects changes in blood flow by measuring changes in the uptake of compound such as o2 or glucose Microdialysis: technique used to determine the chemical constituents of extracellular fluid (implanting needle in ECF) Cellular Voltammetry: technique used to ID the concentration of specific chemicals in the brain as animals behave freely. Does not require chemical analysis but destroys brain tissue. Epigenics: Changes in gene expression related to experience. Neural Stem Cell: self-renewing, multipotential cell that gives rise to neurons and glia, they line neural tube, the divide, one lives to divide again and the other dies Subventricular Zone: lining of neural stem cells surrounding the ventricles in adults Progenitor Cells: precursor cell derived from a stem cell; it migrates and produces a neuron or glial cells Neuroblast: product of progenitor cells that gives rise to different types of glial cels Neurotropic Factor: A chemical compound that acts to support growth and differentiation in developing neurons Radial Glial Cells: path making cell that a migrating neuron follows to its appropriate destination in cortex Chemoaffinity hypothesis: neurons on axons and dendrites are drawn toward a signaling Amblyopia: condition in which vision in one eye is reduced as a result to disuse Agonist: increased effectiveness of neurotransmitters Antangonist: decreased effectiveness metabolic tolerance: increase in number of enzymes used to break down substance Cellular tollerance: cells adjust to minimize effects of the substance (neurons that respond to drug adapt) Learned tolerance: environment cues will trigger response to combat the drug Barbiturates: produces sedation and sleep and can also produce general aesthesis, coma and death Cross tolerance: response to a novel drug is reduced because of tolerance developed in response to a related drug Dissociative anesthetics: group of sedativehypnotics developed as anesthetics, produce altered states and hallucinations eg 'date rape' drug, GHB Endorphin: peptide hormone that acts as a neurotrans and may be associated with feelings of pain or pleasure. Mimicked by opiate drugs such as morphine and heroin Behavioural stimulants: increase motor behaviour elevate a person's mood and level of alertness eg cocaine and amphetamine Anabolic steroids: class of synthetic hormones related to the male sex hormone testosterone4 Sensory transduction: the conversion of electrical energy from a stimulus into a change in membrane potential in a receptor cells Sensation: registration of physical stimuli from environment by sensory organs Perception: subjective interpretation of sensations by the brain Cornea: transparent 'window' into the eyeball Iris: coloured part of eye that regulates light entering by expanding and contracting the pupil Crystalline lens: lens inside the eye, which allows changing focus Pupil: where light comes through initially Retina: light sensitive membrane in the back of the eye which receives a images from the lens and sends it to the brain through optic nerve Fovea: region at the centre of the retina that specialized for high acuity; its receptive field is at the center of the eye's visual field..(high # of comes=details) Retinal ganglion cell axons: bunch together and leave gap in receptor layer and create a 'blind spot'; form the optic nerve, connect with lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus Optic disk: where the optic nerve leaves the eye/blind spot Dorsal visual stream: pathway that originates in occipital cortex, the 'how' pathway Ventral visual stream: originates in the occipital cortex and projects to the temporal cortex, what pathway Pinna: where sound is first collected, then the sound waves are funneled by pinna into the ear canal Ear canal: main purpose is to insulate the structure at its endsthe tympanic membrane Tympanic membrane: the eardrum, a thin sheet of skin at the end of the outer ear canal. Vibrates in response to sounds. Border between outer and middle ear Middle ear: amplify and transmit sound to inner ear Organ of Corti: structure of basilar membrane of cochlea composed of hair cells and dendrites of auditory nerve fibers Tectoral membrane: gelatinous structure attached on one end, that extends into the middle canal of ear, floating above inner hair cells and touching outer hair cells. tonotopic organization: neurons that respond to different frequencies are organized anatomically in order to frequency hierachical organization: pr
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