PSYC 2800 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Radial Glial Cell, Retinal Ganglion Cell

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
Carleton University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2800
Professor
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Biological Foundations of Behaviour
Midterm #2 Material
Ethology: study of animal behaviour
Ablation: removal or destruction of tissue
Bregma: used as a reference point to map out brain locations
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: non-invasive procedure in which a magnetic coil is placed over skull
to stimulate brain.
Brain Electrical Activity: measures summations of graded potentials from thousands of neurons,
changes as behaviour changes
Event Related Potentials: complex waveforms related in time to a specific sensory event. To counter the
effects of noise, stimulus is presented repeatedly and recorded responses are averaged
Magnetoenvechalogy: magnetic potentials recorded from detectors outside the skull, can see 3D image
Computerized Tomography: x-ray beam projected through head of patient to detector ,series of photos
at each axis yield a 30 rep
Magnetic Response Imaging: pass patient by strong magnetic field to produce a 3D static image by
measuring the radiation emitted by each hydrogen atom
Functional MRI: change in elements such as iron and oxygen measure the performance of a behaviour.
Position Emission Tomography: detects changes in blood flow by measuring changes in the uptake of
compound such as o2 or glucose
Microdialysis: technique used to determine the chemical constituents of extracellular fluid (implanting
needle in ECF)
Cellular Voltammetry: technique used to ID the concentration of specific chemicals in the brain as
animals behave freely. Does not require chemical analysis but destroys brain tissue.
Epigenics: Changes in gene expression related to experience.
Neural Stem Cell: self-renewing, multipotential cell that gives rise to neurons and glia, they line neural
tube, the divide, one lives to divide again and the other dies
Subventricular Zone: lining of neural stem cells surrounding the ventricles in adults
Progenitor Cells: precursor cell derived from a stem cell; it migrates and produces a neuron or glial cells
Neuroblast: product of progenitor cells that gives rise to different types of glial cels
Neurotropic Factor: A chemical compound that acts to support growth and differentiation in developing
neurons
Radial Glial Cells: path making cell that a migrating neuron follows to its appropriate destination in
cortex
Chemoaffinity hypothesis: neurons on axons and dendrites are drawn toward a signaling
Amblyopia: condition in which vision in one eye is reduced as a result to disuse
Agonist: increased effectiveness of neurotransmitters
Antangonist: decreased effectiveness
metabolic tolerance: increase in number of enzymes used to break down substance
Cellular tollerance: cells adjust to minimize effects of the substance (neurons that respond to drug
adapt)
Learned tolerance: environment cues will trigger response to combat the drug
Barbiturates: produces sedation and sleep and can also produce general aesthesis, coma and death
Cross tolerance: response to a novel drug is reduced because of tolerance developed in response to a
related drug
Dissociative anesthetics: group of sedativehypnotics developed as anesthetics, produce altered states
and hallucinations eg 'date rape' drug, GHB
Endorphin: peptide hormone that acts as a neurotrans and may be associated with feelings of pain or
pleasure. Mimicked by opiate drugs such as morphine and heroin
Behavioural stimulants: increase motor behaviour elevate a person's mood and level of alertness eg
cocaine and amphetamine
Anabolic steroids: class of synthetic hormones related to the male sex hormone testosterone4
Sensory transduction: the conversion of electrical energy from a stimulus into a change in membrane
potential in a receptor cells
Sensation: registration of physical stimuli from environment by sensory organs
Perception: subjective interpretation of sensations by the brain
Cornea: transparent 'window' into the eyeball
Iris: coloured part of eye that regulates light entering by expanding and contracting the pupil
Crystalline lens: lens inside the eye, which allows changing focus
Pupil: where light comes through initially
Retina: light sensitive membrane in the back of the eye which receives a images from the lens and sends
it to the brain through optic nerve
Fovea: region at the centre of the retina that specialized for high acuity; its receptive field is at the
center of the eye's visual field..(high # of comes=details)
Retinal ganglion cell axons: bunch together and leave gap in receptor layer and create a 'blind spot';
form the optic nerve, connect with lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus
Optic disk: where the optic nerve leaves the eye/blind spot
Dorsal visual stream: pathway that originates in occipital cortex, the 'how' pathway
Ventral visual stream: originates in the occipital cortex and projects to the temporal cortex, what
pathway
Pinna: where sound is first collected, then the sound waves are funneled by pinna into the ear canal
Ear canal: main purpose is to insulate the structure at its endsthe tympanic membrane
Tympanic membrane: the eardrum, a thin sheet of skin at the end of the outer ear canal. Vibrates in
response to sounds. Border between outer and middle ear
Middle ear: amplify and transmit sound to inner ear
Organ of Corti: structure of basilar membrane of cochlea composed of hair cells and dendrites of
auditory nerve fibers
Tectoral membrane: gelatinous structure attached on one end, that extends into the middle canal of
ear, floating above inner hair cells and touching outer hair cells.
tonotopic organization: neurons that respond to different frequencies are organized anatomically in
order to frequency
hierachical organization: primary (A1), Belt Region (secondary) directly adjecent to A1, with inputs from
A1, where neurons respond to more complex characteristics of sounds, Parabelt Regions (association)
Lateral and adjecent to the belt area: neurons respond to more complex characteristics of sounds as
well as to input from other senses
Broca's Area: anterior speech area in left hemisphere that functions with motor cortec to produce
movements needed for speech
Wernicke's Area: posterior speech area at rear of left temporal lobe that regulates language
comprehension
Lateralization: functions become localized primarily on one side of brain eg speech on left hemisphere,
music on right
Research Methods
Wishaw and Kolb, 2005: Skilled Reaching Test
a) aim the paw
b) reach over for the food
c) grasp the food
d) withdraw and move hand to mouth
Morris, 1980: Swimming Test
1 peace learning: rat must find platform using external cues
2 matching to place: platform is in the same location each trial but a different location each day
3 landmark version: platform is identified by a cue on pool wall
Neurodevelopment
Three Perspectives on Brain Development
1. Structural development can be studied and correlated with the emergence of behaviour.
- eg development of the frontal love should correspond with social development
2. Behavioural development can be analyzed an predictions made about what underlying circuitry
must be emerging
- eg. language development>development on language regions
3. Factors that influence both structural and behavioural development such as hormones, genes,
experience or injury can be studied
- abnormal levels influence given behaviour and brain structure, conclude structure
implicated must play a role in behaviour normally
eg Alcohol Syndrome
Stages in Development

Document Summary

Bregma: used as a reference point to map out brain locations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: non-invasive procedure in which a magnetic coil is placed over skull to stimulate brain. Brain electrical activity: measures summations of graded potentials from thousands of neurons, changes as behaviour changes. Event related potentials: complex waveforms related in time to a specific sensory event. To counter the effects of noise, stimulus is presented repeatedly and recorded responses are averaged. Magnetoenvechalogy: magnetic potentials recorded from detectors outside the skull, can see 3d image. Computerized tomography: x-ray beam projected through head of patient to detector ,series of photos at each axis yield a 30 rep. Magnetic response imaging: pass patient by strong magnetic field to produce a 3d static image by measuring the radiation emitted by each hydrogen atom. Functional mri: change in elements such as iron and oxygen measure the performance of a behaviour.