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Lecture 4 Final.docx

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PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

Lecture 4 [final] Connecting Learning and Memory Learning A change in an organisms behavior as a result of experience So it is not just sitting in a classroom and taking notes and learning that way, it is also playing piano, its meeting someone for first time and learning their name and face Any long lasting permanent change Memory The ability to recall or recognize previous experience So you might learn someones name at a party, and then wake up next morning and not remember their name Memory implies a mental representation of the previous experience Memory Trace A mental representation of a previous experience Presumed to correspond to some physical change in the brain Our brain has neuroplasticity which means it is ever changing, it also means that we are constantly learning and storing information. We can look at neuronal changes in cells exposed to specific sensory experiences. We can also look at neural changes that mediate brain plasticity ie: recovery from brain injury, addiction, learning disabilities. Pavlovian Conditioning Learning procedure whereby a neutral stimulus (such as a tone, flashing light, odor; usualy a sensory experience) comes to elicit a response because of its repeated pairing with some event (such as the delivery of food); also called classical conditioning or respondent conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (neutral) : Stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning e.g, meat powder, juicy burger, doughnut unconditioned response : unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning e.g., salivation, heart rate change conditioned stimulus: Previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response e.g., tone, visual image marketing companies are aware of these conditioning so that when we see their logo we associate that with their food and the craving for that food. Conditioned response (CR): Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning e.g., salivation, craving coffee, tummy rumbling talking to teacher - CS then becomes CR once paired with cookie over time = happy cookie -UCS = UR (happy) Eye-Blink Conditioning Commonly used experimental technique in which subjects learn to pair a formerly neutral stimulus to a defensive eye-blinking response Overtime just once tone is heard you will close your eyes in anticipation of puff of air. Fear Conditioning Learned association, a conditioned emotional response, between a neutral stimulus and a noxious event such as a shock Metal floor, play a tone with the foot shock, the unconditioned response is to jump (startle) once shocked, over continuous pairings the animal will freeze (CR) to the sound of the tone itself, (UC) startle (jump). They never associate the tone with the foot shock, it is a very specific emotional memory that cannot occur. Thought to involve the amygdala Instrumental Conditioning (Operant Conditioning) Learning procedure in which the consequences (such as obtaining a reward) of a particular behavior (such as pressing a bar) increase or decrease the probability of the behavior occurring again; operant conditioning Thorndikes puzzle box: A hungry cat will eventually learn that pressing a lever will open the door so that it can reach some food Would very quickly learn to escape, but if placed back in the box it would take a few trials to figure it out again Principles of Reinforcement Fundamental Principle: Organisms tend to repeat responses that are followed by favourable consequences We will go looking for say suschi well go to our favorite suschi place to get the best suschi, we wont eat bad suschi when we know there is a better one out there that gives us a more positive feeling. These behaviours are reinforced : When an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response we say that that behaviour has been reinforced Is a difference between reward and reinforcement Reward is a positive and pleasurable experience Reinforcement can be both positive or negative Positive reinforcement Response followed by rewarding stimulus E.g., tasty meal, paycheque, good grades If we study really hard and get an A then we are more likely to study as hard in the future If we dont study and get an F then something needs to change Negative reinforcement Response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus E.g., press on lever to remove shock, *taking pain medications to relieve headache*, drug addiction, best way to cure a hangover is to drink alcohol (hard core addicts, promotes addictive cycle because they take the drug to relieve the withdrawal initially before being addicted but then they begin to take the drug even before the withdrawal sets in (to avoid withdrawal) TWO categories of Memory implicit (procedural) Memory Unconscious memory: subjects can demonstrate knowledge, such as a skill, conditioned
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