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Lecture 1 and textbook notes for exam

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PSYC 3405
Brenda Baird

Lecture 1 Motivational questions - What causes behavior? ACTIONS - Why does it vary in intensity? - Within a person - Between people History of motivational perspectives - Past: 3 grand theories • Will  Didn’t last too long, replaced by instinct • Instinct  Darwin, idea of genes, replaced by drive • Drive  Freud, etc… Theory of the will (Descartes) - Idea came from philosophers - If you understand will, you understand motivation - Believed there are 3 components to motivation, willpower: • Protect honor, avoid shame • Bodily function • Reason - Body deficits aroused the will - Will controls bodily appetites and passion (exercises power of free choice) • Ex: lustful, hedonistic/ pleasure seeking actions - Will directs all action (motivates) - Will = ultimate motivational force (vague, circular) - Mental processes (plans, goals, strategies) - Couldn’t really explain motivation- raised more questions Theory of instinct (Darwin) - Biological determinism (motivation due to genetic pre-wiring) • Product of instincts  Instincts existed in the genes  Ex: how animals use their resources to adapt to the prevailing demands of the environment - Motivation = instinctual urges, impulses, and appetites - Requires a stimulus to incite action (reflexive, automatic) • Problematic- over 6000 instincts to explain each action? What happens if there is no stimulus? - Goal directed behavior a product of instincts • Acircular debate • Cause explains behavior, but behavior is evidence for it’s cause • How many instincts?  Ex: eating instincts, putting on clothes instinct- not explaining these actions - We are more than automatic individuals- we have more control • Religion hated this one Drive theory (Freud, Hull) - All motivation due to bodily deficits • All deficits are physical energy- will lead to some sort of anxiety if the deficits build up, become depleted - FREUD all internal • Purpose of behavior was to serve the satisfaction of need - HULL • Excitatory potential- strength of behavior • Drive- internal source of motivation  Deficit • Habit- comes from learning  Can direct behavior • Incentive- external source of motivation - Motivation can now be predicted - Proved to be overly limited in scope- when it declined, grand theories declined in general Decline of grand theories History of motivational perspectives - Present: mini-theories • Humans are dynamic not passive • Rise of cognitive science • Explains specific domains • Applied to real life events The many voices in motivation study - Motivation study in the 21 century is populated by multiple perspectives and multiple voices, all of which contribute a different piece to the puzzle of motivation and emotion study. What is motivation? - The processes that give behavior its energy and direction • Energy: behavior is relatively strong, intense, persistent • Direction: behavior is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal - Forces in the individual and the environment - Provide direction and intensity of behavior What are these forces? Subject “matter” ** POTENTIAL LONGANSWER QUESTION** - Internal motives • Needs:  Biological (hunger, thirst, sex)  Psychological (belonging, ability)  Social (power, intimacy)  Can argue that without these, we would die (physically or mentally)  Varying degrees of strength of needs • Cognitions:  Mental beliefs, goals/expectancies, wants  Ex: eat healthy, quit smoking • Emotions:  Feel, prepare, function, express - External events • Incentives: reward/punishment Forces of behavior External events - Operant conditioning: • Reinforcement:  The process by which events in the environment increase the probability of behavior  Incentives  “Reinforcers” (food, shelter, money,
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