Study Guides (248,069)
Canada (121,279)
Psychology (775)
PSYC 3405 (7)
Final

Lecture 1 and textbook notes for exam
Premium

15 Pages
91 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3405
Professor
Brenda Baird
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 1 Motivational questions - What causes behavior? ACTIONS - Why does it vary in intensity? - Within a person - Between people History of motivational perspectives - Past: 3 grand theories • Will  Didn’t last too long, replaced by instinct • Instinct  Darwin, idea of genes, replaced by drive • Drive  Freud, etc… Theory of the will (Descartes) - Idea came from philosophers - If you understand will, you understand motivation - Believed there are 3 components to motivation, willpower: • Protect honor, avoid shame • Bodily function • Reason - Body deficits aroused the will - Will controls bodily appetites and passion (exercises power of free choice) • Ex: lustful, hedonistic/ pleasure seeking actions - Will directs all action (motivates) - Will = ultimate motivational force (vague, circular) - Mental processes (plans, goals, strategies) - Couldn’t really explain motivation- raised more questions Theory of instinct (Darwin) - Biological determinism (motivation due to genetic pre-wiring) • Product of instincts  Instincts existed in the genes  Ex: how animals use their resources to adapt to the prevailing demands of the environment - Motivation = instinctual urges, impulses, and appetites - Requires a stimulus to incite action (reflexive, automatic) • Problematic- over 6000 instincts to explain each action? What happens if there is no stimulus? - Goal directed behavior a product of instincts • Acircular debate • Cause explains behavior, but behavior is evidence for it’s cause • How many instincts?  Ex: eating instincts, putting on clothes instinct- not explaining these actions - We are more than automatic individuals- we have more control • Religion hated this one Drive theory (Freud, Hull) - All motivation due to bodily deficits • All deficits are physical energy- will lead to some sort of anxiety if the deficits build up, become depleted - FREUD all internal • Purpose of behavior was to serve the satisfaction of need - HULL • Excitatory potential- strength of behavior • Drive- internal source of motivation  Deficit • Habit- comes from learning  Can direct behavior • Incentive- external source of motivation - Motivation can now be predicted - Proved to be overly limited in scope- when it declined, grand theories declined in general Decline of grand theories History of motivational perspectives - Present: mini-theories • Humans are dynamic not passive • Rise of cognitive science • Explains specific domains • Applied to real life events The many voices in motivation study - Motivation study in the 21 century is populated by multiple perspectives and multiple voices, all of which contribute a different piece to the puzzle of motivation and emotion study. What is motivation? - The processes that give behavior its energy and direction • Energy: behavior is relatively strong, intense, persistent • Direction: behavior is aimed toward achieving a particular purpose or goal - Forces in the individual and the environment - Provide direction and intensity of behavior What are these forces? Subject “matter” ** POTENTIAL LONGANSWER QUESTION** - Internal motives • Needs:  Biological (hunger, thirst, sex)  Psychological (belonging, ability)  Social (power, intimacy)  Can argue that without these, we would die (physically or mentally)  Varying degrees of strength of needs • Cognitions:  Mental beliefs, goals/expectancies, wants  Ex: eat healthy, quit smoking • Emotions:  Feel, prepare, function, express - External events • Incentives: reward/punishment Forces of behavior External events - Operant conditioning: • Reinforcement:  The process by which events in the environment increase the probability of behavior  Incentives  “Reinforcers” (food, shelter, money,
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3405

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit