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Lecture 2 and textbook notes for exam

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PSYC 3405
Brenda Baird

Lecture 2 What is a need? - Acondition that is essential for life, growth, and well-being - Therefore, a neglected need will damage/disrupt biological or mental well-being Needs - Deficiency needs: deprivational states • Absence inhibits growth/development • Need for safety, belongingness, and esteem - Growth needs: self-actualization • A“master” motive (“meta” needs) • Provide energy and direction to become what one is capable of becoming • Ex: longing for a sense of wholeness, aliveness, uniqueness, and meaning 3 major physiological needs - Thirst • Excessive behavior can be damaging- if you drink too much water, you can cause tissue damage - Hunger - Sex Physiological need ** - Adeficient biological condition • Based on physiological deficits • Unmet can lead to hard/death, dehydration, malnutrition/starvation Homeostasis - The body’s ability to bring body down to basal state of balance, equilibrium - Internal/external changes disrupt balance - Homeostasis achieved through motivational states to satisfy the need Psychological drive ** - The conscious manifestation of an unconscious biological need - The psychological experience that directs behavior - Drive determines motivation, not need Drive as an intervening variable Negative feedback - Homeostasis’physiological “brake” - Drives motivate behavior, negative feedback inhibits behavior - Ventromedial hypothalamus- signals satiation Intra and extra-organismic mechanisms - Intra-organismic = biological • Include all the biological systems within the person that act in concert to activate, maintain, and terminate the physiological needs that underlie drive • Brain structures, endocrine system, and bodily organs • For hunger: hypothalamus (brain structure), glucose and insulin hormones (endocrine system), and the stomach and liver (bodily organs) - Extra-organismic = environmental • Cognitive (beliefs)  Ex: own weight goals- if you want to gain or lose weight, controlling something in their life, maintain goal • Environmental (time of day)  Ex: time of day will trigger need (eating during lunch or dinner regardless if you are hungry or not) • Social (with friends)  Ex: peer pressure to eat or not to eat • Cultural (acceptable norms) Thirst (intra-organismic) - Role of hypothalamus • Hypothalamus monitors intracellular shrinkage  Releases hormone to kidneys to conserve fluid  Creates psychological experience of thirst  Generates motivation (urge) to drink Thirst (extra-organismic) - Environmental influences • Perception of availability • Taste • Drinking schedule Hunger: 2 processes **SHORT/LONGANSWER POTENTIOAL?** - Short-term: glucostatic hypothesis ** • Blood sugar levels critical to hunger (when it drops, you get hungry)  Liver monitors blood glucose levels • Depletion-repletion of glucose • LH/VMH  When blood sugar is low, the liver sends an excitatory signal to the lateral hypothalamus (LH), which is responsible for generating the psychological experience of hunger  VMH involved in the termination of meals  It is short-term appetite’s negative feedback system • Rises and falls throughout the day  In response to changes in plasma glucose that stimulate the LH to increase hunger and stimulate the VMH to decrease hunger - Long-term: lipostatic hypothesis ** • Metabolism and energy stores: fat cells • Grelin appetite (stimulates the LH)  Promotes weight gain motivation that increases food intake • Leptin suppressing appetite (stimulates the VMH)  Promotes weight loss motivation  Hormone secreted into the blood by fat cells to produce satiety
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