1. What causes behavior?
a. To understand what causes behavior we need to expand this one general question
into a series of five specific questions
i. Why does behavior start?
ii. Once begun, why is behavior sustained over time?
iii. Why is behavior directed toward some goals yet away from others
iv. Why does behavior change its direction?
v. Why does behavior stop?
2. Why does it vary in intensity
a. Within a person
b. Between people
c. Some suggest that self-esteem can cause a boost for motivation, creating higher
i. This has been proven wrong, ones higher achievements cause higher self
esteem not vice versa
History of Motivational Perspectives
•Past 3 Grand Theories (Grand – covers all aspects of motivation)
Theory of The Will (Descartes)
•Bodily deficits aroused the will
•Will controls bodily appetites (Free choice)
•Mind Power (will) directs all action (motivates)
•Will = Motivation (vague)
•Mental processes (plans, goals, strategies)
•Some process was made as the acts of willing were identified to be
oChoosing (EX. Deciding whether to act or not)
oStriving (EX. Creating impulses to act)
oResisting (EX. Self-denial or resisting temptation)
Theory of the Instinct (Darwin)
•Biological determinism (Genetically wired)
•Motivation = Instinctual urges, impulses
•Requires a stimulus to incite action (reflexive, automatic)
•All we could explain is the behavior and name it the “fight instinct” but could not explain
why we have the instinct to fight
Instead of mentalistic motivational concepts (e.g. Will) toward mechanical
and genetic ones
•Goal directed behavior a product of instincts
•A circular debate
•How many instincts?