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PSYC 3405 Study Guide - Victoria Medal Of Honour, Drive Theory, Homeostasis

8 pages103 viewsFall 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3405
Professor
all

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Motivational Questions
1. What causes behavior?
a. To understand what causes behavior we need to expand this one general question
into a series of five specific questions
i. Why does behavior start?
ii. Once begun, why is behavior sustained over time?
iii. Why is behavior directed toward some goals yet away from others
iv. Why does behavior change its direction?
v. Why does behavior stop?
2. Why does it vary in intensity
a. Within a person
b. Between people
c. Some suggest that self-esteem can cause a boost for motivation, creating higher
achievements
i. This has been proven wrong, ones higher achievements cause higher self
esteem not vice versa
History of Motivational Perspectives
Past 3 Grand Theories (Grand – covers all aspects of motivation)
oWill
oInstinct
oDrive
Theory of The Will (Descartes)
Bodily deficits aroused the will
Will controls bodily appetites (Free choice)
Mind Power (will) directs all action (motivates)
Will = Motivation (vague)
Mental processes (plans, goals, strategies)
Some process was made as the acts of willing were identified to be
oChoosing (EX. Deciding whether to act or not)
oStriving (EX. Creating impulses to act)
oResisting (EX. Self-denial or resisting temptation)
Theory of the Instinct (Darwin)
Biological determinism (Genetically wired)
Motivation = Instinctual urges, impulses
Requires a stimulus to incite action (reflexive, automatic)
All we could explain is the behavior and name it the “fight instinct” but could not explain
why we have the instinct to fight
Biological determinism
oEvolution
Instead of mentalistic motivational concepts (e.g. Will) toward mechanical
and genetic ones
Goal directed behavior a product of instincts
A circular debate
How many instincts?
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Drive Theory (Freud, Hull)
Freud
Source (body deficit) – Drive Force (anxiety) – Object (stimulus) – Aim (satisfy)
Hull
E = H x D x K
Excitatory potential (Strength of behavior) = Habit x Drive x Incentive
oDrive (internal source of motivation)
oIncentive (external source of motivation)
Motivation can now be predicted
Drive motivated whatever behavior was instrumental to servicing the body’s needs (EX.
Water, food, approach)
Freud
oBelieved that all behavior was motivated and that the purpose of behavior was to
serve the satisfaction of needs
oFour concepts
Source – A bodily deficit (Lack of water) would cause psychological drive
Impetus (force) – possessed the aim of satisfaction which was the removal
of a bodily deficit (drinking water)(anxiety grows)
Object – anxiety forces to search for object to satisfy
Aim – if object successfully satisfies then anxiety goes away
Hull
oE = H x D x K
oExcitatory potential (Strength of behavior) = Habit x Drive x Incentive
Drive (internal source of motivation)
Incentive (external source of motivation)
oMotivation can now be predicted
Decline of Grand Theories
Will (Descartes)
oThe philosophical study of the will turned out to be a dead end that explained very
little about motivation, as it actually raised more questions than it answered
Instinct (Darwin)
oThe physiological study of the instinct proved to be an intellectual dead end as
well, as it became clear that “naming is not explaining”
Drive (Freud) (HULL)
oDrive theory proved itself to be overly limited in scope, and with its rejection
came the field’s disillusionment with grand theories in general
Criticism
Over estimation of biological forces (underestimation of learning
and experience)
Ideas that are not experimentally capable (can not test people)
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History of Motivational Perspectives
Presents: Mini-theories
oHumans are dynamic not passive
oRise of cognitive science
oExplains specific domains
oApplied to real life events
What is motivation?
Define it
oThe processes that gives behavior its energy and direct
What is its purpose
oExpectation of reward
Where does it come from
oForces in the individual and the environment
What is the subject matter
oProvide direction and intensity of behavior
What are these forces? Subject matter
1. Internal motives
a. Needs
i. Biological (hunger, thirst, sex)
ii. Psychological: (Belonging, ability)
iii. Social (power, intimacy)
b. Cognitions:
i. Mental beliefs, goals/expectancies
c. Emotions:
i. Feel, prepare, function, express
2. External Events
a. Incentives
i. Reward/ punishment
External Events
Operant conditioning
oReinforcement
The process by which events in the environment increase the probability
of behavior
oPositive reinforcement
Behavior response followed by a positive consequence in the environment
oNegative reinforcement
Behavior response followed by removal of an aversive consequence
oPunishment
Suppression of behavior by introduction of aversive consequences
Incentives
oReinforces (food, shelter, money, autonomy, competence, power, intimacy)
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