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PSYC 3506 (1)
Midterm

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3506
Professor
Deepthi Kamawar
Semester
Winter

Description
ALL NOTES ONE PLACE MIDTERM 1 PSYC 3506 LECTURE 1- INTRODUCTION Children’s thinking refers to the thinking that takes place from the moment of birth through to the end of adolescence. - Thinking involves higher mental processes: problem solving, reasoning, conceptualizing, remembering, classifying, symbolizing, planning, etc. - Childrens thinking is always changing o Devries (1969) interested in 3-6 year olds understanding of the difference between appearance and reality. Had them pet and get to know a cat named Maynard. When experimenter asked them what he was, they all knew he was a cat. The experimenter then put a mask of a fierce dog on Maynard’s face. The experimenter said, “look now it has the face of a dog. So what is this animal?” Many of the 3 year olds thought Maynard had turned into a dog, but the 6 year olds knew that he was still a cat and that the mask did not change the animal’s identity Are some capabilities innate? - Continuum of views: Nature vs. Nurture - Associationist perspective o English philosophers 1700’s -1800’s John Locke, David Hume, John Stuart Mill o Suggested that infants come into the world with only minimal capabilities, primarily the ability to associate experiences with each other. Therefore infants must acquire virtually all capacities and concepts through learning. - Constructivist perspective – developed by Jean Piaget 1920’s-1970’s o Suggest that infants are born possessing not only these associative capabilities but also several important perceptual and motor capabilities. Although few in number and limited in scope, these capabilities allow infants to explore their environment and to construct increasingly sophisticated concepts and understandings. o E.g. infants in first 6 months are said not to be able to form mental representations of objects and events, but through actively manipulating and investigating objects, they are said to become capable of forming such representations later in their first year. - Competent infant perspective o Based on more recent research (Spelke and Newport 1998) o Suggest both the other approaches seriously underestimate infants’ capabilities. Within this view, even young infants have a much wider range of perceptual skills and conceptual understandings than had previously been suspected. o These capacities allow infants, in a rudimentary way, to perceive the world and to classify their experiences along many of the same dimensions that older children and adults use. General learning mechanisms: - Imitation – of adults - Statistical learning – extracting sequential patterns from input. Does development progress through stages? Does children’s thinking progress through qualitatively different stages? - Charles Darwin – in his book the descent of man, he discussed the development of reason, curiosity, imitation, attention, imagination, language and self-consciousness. Over a vast period of time that living things have populated the earth, they have evolved through a series of qualitatively distinct forms. Aka we can measure it by quality. - In early 20 century james mark Baldwin hypothesized a set of plausible stages of intellectual devt. Suggested that children progressed from a sensorimotor stage (in which sensory observations and motor interactions with the physical environment were the dominant form of thought, to a quasilogical, logical and finally a hyperlogical stage). Baldwins theory influenced Jean PIAGET. - What do we mean by ‘qualitatively different stages’? o Qualitative differences focus on changes in the way children think, behave, and perceive the world differently  as they mature, as opposed to quantitatively different stages, which refer to the changes children encounter  as they acquire more knowledge and grow physically larger and stronger. An example of quantitative  differences would be a child who, after two years, has grown two inches and gained 10 pounds. Growth in  height and weight indicates a quantitative difference. - Contrast: Stages (steps) vs. Continuous (slope) o Developmental theorists that took an evolutionary stance hypothesized that children would make the transition from one stage to the next suddenly. o Associationist philosophers such as John Locke believed in continuous (slope) in that children’s thinking develops through the gradual accretion of innumerable particular experiences. Flavell noted 4 key implications of the stage concept: 1. Stages imply qualitative changes 2. Concurrence assumption – children make the transition from one stage to another on many concepts simultaneously. E.g. when in stage 1, they show stage 1 reasoning in all concepts, and in stage 2 they show stage 2 reasoning in all concepts. In other words, when they make the shift to the next stage they make the shift for all concepts all at once. Uniformity across domains. (Domains are distinct knowledge areas such as reading, understanding, etc.). There is an expectation that if you are at a particular stage for one domain, that you are at the same stage for other domains. 3. Abruptness assumption - children move from one sage to the next swiftly/suddenly rather than gradually. 4. Coherent organization – the childs understanding is viewed as being organized into a sensible whole, rather than being composed of many independent pieces of knowledge. - Examples of stage-like changes? o Stage - metamorphosis from caterpillar to butterfly. - James Mark Baldwin  Jean Piaget Piaget: - argues stages for change – there is a qualitative change - Piaget built on James Mark Baldwin’s theory. Baldwin came up with basic stage theory and Piaget expanded on it. - We’re arguing there is qualitative change taking place What drives change/how does change occur - Mechanisms of change vary across theories. Some examples: o Piaget suggested that the basic mechanisms that produce all cognitive changes are ASSIMILATION and ACCOMODATION  Assimilation is taking new information and fitting it into what you already know. • E.g. A child seeing a zebra for the first time and calling it a horse. The child assimilates this information into her schema for a horse.  Accommodation - You restructure your existing knowledge to fit with the new information. • E.g. when the child accommodates information, they take into consideration the different properties of a zebra compared to a horse, perhaps calling a zebra a horse with stripes. When they eventually learn the name of zebra, she has accommodated this information. o Information processing approach –  Automatization- executing mental processes increasingly efficiently so that they require less and less attention. In other words, a skill or behaviour becomes automatic as opposed to effortful once learned.  Encoding – involves identifying the most informative features of objects and events and using those features to form internal representations of the objects and events.  Generalization – the extension of knowledge acquired in one context to another context.  Strategy construction – discovery of a new procedure to solve a problem How do individuals differ? - There is not only variability among ages, but also variability across children of any given age - Alfred Binet and Theophile simon hired in 1980’s to develop a test to identify children who would have trouble learning from standard classroom procedures and who therefore would need special education. - The Binet Simon test included questions that were intuitively related to many aspects of intelligence: language, memory, reasoning and problem solving. - Tests distinguish between a child’s chronological age and a child’s mental age. - IQ= mental age x 100 Chronological age - We know that children vary in terms of: o Intelligence (IQ scores); can be predicted to some degree performance in school; and also are stable through time. Based on habituation rate in infancy (how long they pay attention to something, extract information out of it, and then switch their attention to something else.  The more quickly they habituated the higher their scores were. (represents the time it took for them to encode the information). The kids who could do that faster did better in other measures in future. o Language (e.g. vocabulary) **don’t really need to know the anatomy of the brain How do changes in the brain contribute to cognitive development? - Why ask this question? o False belief task – prefrontal cortex o We can ask questions about the effect of changes in the brain at different brain sizes. a) Brain as a whole - tremendous growth from birth to adulthood - 400g at birth to 1450g in adulthood b) Structures within the brain –  Subcortical and Cortical regions change in relative size and activity across development  Different lobes are implicated in different activities, for example: • temporal - perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and olafactory (smell) • frontal - reasoning, planning, problem-solving  Changes in the cerebral cortex have been associated with some specific changes in cognitive ability • for example, changes the prefrontal cortex are associated with changes in children’s ability to think about others’ minds c) Changes in neurons  for example, myelination affects the transmission of signals • Myelination: process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath (called myelin) that greatly improves the efficiency of message transfer d) Synaptogenesis (formation of synapses between neurons)  general pattern: overproduction and pruning • overproduction is developing early in life a large proliferation of these synapses. When a baby is very young (10 months) this synaptogenesis goes away as the child gets older • pruning isa neurological regulatory process, which facilitates changes in neural structure by reducing the overall number of neurons and synapses, leaving more efficient synaptic configurations  production is determined by genetics, pruning is affected by experience (example with the babies recognizing monkey faces) - Benefits of overproduction? Plasticity (ability to recover from drastic damage/stroke), and ease of acquisition How Does the Social World Contribute to Cognitive Development?  What kinds of factors are included when we talk about ‘the social world’?  Piaget – claim his stages are universal and culture is irrelevant. Not affected by cultural variability  Interaction between different groups within society. Between communities, presence of other people and what their relation is to you, society’s expectations or those you interact with’s expectations of you.  Focus on social world varies across theories  Sociocultural theories emphasize the role of the social world  Vygotsky***IMPORTANT  Developmental change is conceptualized as occuring not only in individual childrens knowledge and cognitive processes, but also in childrens roles in social interactions and in their ways of participating in culturally determined forms of behaviour. - bronfenbrenner o Bronfenbrenner focused on the reciprocal influence of person and environment Bronfenbrenner’s Layers: 1) microsystem: the setting in which an individual lives. This context includes the person’s family, peers, school and neighborhood. 2) mesosystem: involves relationships between microsystems, or connections between contexts 3) exosystem: is involved when experiences in a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role influences what the individual experiences in an immediate context. 4) macrosystem: involves the culture in which individuals live 5) chronosystem: this system encompasses the dimension of time as it relates to a child’s environments (e.g., parent’s death, physiological changes, changes in relation to environment as children age, etc.).  Vygotsky is an important name here as well (more on him soon). Jean Piaget – chapter 2 - Why do we still devote so much time to Piaget? 1. Piaget addressed fundamental issues 2. the theory had exceptional breadth 3. Piaget made a number of very interesting observations. In other words, the questions that he asked still inspire research in the area of children’s development 4. First real comprehensive theory of development 5. He did research to support his claims 6. A lot of work today is inspired by the questions he asked. Gave us a good place to start in understanding cognition - Biology and philosophy – genetic epistemology o Epistemology is the study of knowledge, aka genetic epistemology is the development of knowledge. He wanted to know where knowledge came from. o As opposed to Darwin asking “how did people evolve?”, he asks “how did knowledge evolve?” aka from a scientific standpoint Nature of the theory – it is a stage theory Different way of understanding that makes one stage more advanced than another and a qualitative shift in thinking At a given point in development , children reason similarly on many problems. Theory entails that there is consistency (concurrence assumption) Stages are linked by age He is a constructivist – children construct their own cognitive worlds. Orienting assumptions: - Children can be seen as scientific problem solvers – he sees them as active constructors of knowledge. And the way they solved problems as infants was indicative of how they could adapt to the challenges later in life that were posed. o Equilibration only occurs when something disrupts the childs equilibrium (what they perceive as normal). Encountering problems leads to cognitive growth o We can gain more insight when observing reactions to unfamiliar situations. Can reveal the reasoning behind their decisions as opposed to if the situation is familiar/they already know the answer - The role of activity – assimilation, accommodation and equilibration are all active processes by which the mind transforms and is transformed by incoming information. - Methodological considerations - - They use schemas – a way of understanding things in the world. Schema: a concept or framework that exists in an individual’s mind to organize and interpret information; a mental pattern; mental structure held in the mind to direct and control behavior Progress from on stage to another the result of three change mechanisms: - Assimilation - Accommodation - Equilibration Assimilation involves the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge  we make reality fit our minds • Not a passive process - environmental input is often modified/distorted to be incorporated into existing schemas • Example – in textbook the baby assuming that a man who has hair that looks like a clown is a clown because that is what fits his schema of what a clown looks like Accommodation occurs when individuals adjust schemas to new information  we make our minds fit reality • occurs when when info cannot be interpreted with existing schemas  actively modify schemas • Example? Daddy is daddy and all men are not daddy. Teaching that men are men and only one person is daddy. • Cats and tigers **POSSIBLE TEST QUESTION CONTRAST THESE AND GIVE EXAMPLES Equilibration refers to the organism’s attempt to keep its cognitive structures in balance and integrate knowledge into a coherent whole - a mechanism that explains the shift from one stage of thought to the next - shifts occur because of cognitive conflict (disequilibrium) - the conflict is resolved through assimilation and accommodation to reach a balance Three phases: 1) equilibrium 2) shortcomings in system lead to disequilibrium 3) more sophisticated mode of thought is reached (a more stable equilibrium) OptionA: Info is too discrepant and is ignored. StateAunchanged Option B: Discrepant info is distorted (assimilation). StateAbroadened but qualitatively unchanged Option C: Current schemas modified (accommodation) Amore stable state (State B) is created Schematic representation of equilibration State A: Toy boats float /and soap sinks Discrepant Information (Ivory soap floats) Disequilibrium (it doesn’t look like a toy boat but doesn’t fit soap because soap isn’t supposed to float The Stage Model • Four major periods: - Sensorimotor (birth to ~ 2 years) - Preoperational (~ 2 years to 6 or 7 years) - Concrete operations (~ 6 or 7 to 11 or 12 years) - Formal operations (~ 11 or 12 years onward) • order is invariant and cannot be skipped • stages are universal 1. Sensorimotor Period- (birth to ~ 2 years) • Infant moves from simple reflexes to symbolic thought • Breaks down in to 6 sub-stages Sub-stage 1: Modification of reflexes (birth ~ 1 month) o Basic reflexes become more adaptive. E.g. in the first days they suck similarly regarding the type of object in their mouth. However by end of first month they suck differently on a milk bearing nipple than on a harder, drier finger. (example of accommodation in first month of life) Sub-stage 2: Primary circular reactions (~1 to 4 months) o Behaviours are repetitive (trying to duplicate some earlier positive event) o begin to coordinate actions that were initially separate reflexes (e.g. grab and suck) o Limited in that they do not vary their behaviour, their behaviour has a large trial and error component, and that the outcome only involves THEMSELVES (e.g. sucking a finger) Sub-stage 3: Secondary circular reactions (~ 4 to 8 mos.) - Outcomes involve the outside world, beyond their bodies e.g. batting a ball and watching it roll away). - repeating again but OUTSIDE WORLD e.g. toy baby lies under makes pleasant noise if baby hits it, so baby tried to replicate - the components of circular reactions are organized more efficiently (reacted more quickly and wasted less motion once they learned it and tried to replicate it) - only form goals directly suggested to them in the immediate environment Sub-stage 4: Intentional behaviour (~ 8 to 12 mos.) - coordination of secondary circular reactions: two or more secondary circular reactions become coordinated - one circular reaction can be used in the service of another (e.g., move X to get Y)more than one attempt to reach an object (e.g. if object is on the blanket, they can grab blanket to reach object) if they act a certain way, particular effects will follow. - object permanence (form mental representations) - goal directed activity (intentional) Sub-stage 5: Tertiary circular reactions (~ 12 to 18 mos.) - actions still repeated, but they deliberately vary both their own actions and objects on which they act (active experimentation) - a lot of learning at this stage is through trial-and-error - E.g. Piaget’s son Laurent varying the positions of the fall of the toys he has (each producing a different outcome). Does this a couple of different times in each spot, as though to study the spatial location, and then he modifies the situation. - Correspondence between intentions and behaviours becomes increasingly precise, and exploration of the world becomes increasingly venturesome. Sub-stage 6: Using Symbols (~ 18 to 24 mos.) - Transitional period between sensorimotor and preoperational periods - beginnings of representational thought - symbolic functioning begins (language, pretend play) - Deferred imitation possible (example? imitating in the future an action of someone that they saw in the past) - Major accomplishment during sensorimotor period: Object Permanence o an infant who is 4-6 months old and in the process of reaching for an object will stop if an object is covered • Piaget argued that the child ceased to believe the object existed  out of sight, out of mind • Object permanence begins to be established around 8 months of age. Piaget claimed that object permanence is established between 8- to 12- months of age • Challenge to this claim: Baillargeon (1987) • Baillargeon (1987): - Participants – age 4 months old. Had to use another method - habituation - Method (habituation) For example, the work of Renee Baillargeon (1987) has demonstrated that the concept of object permanence may actually develop much sooner than the age of 8-12 months (as Piaget would have predicted). Baillargeon believed that infants younger than eight months failed Piaget’s task because they were lacking in the gross and fine motor movement required to reach out and remove the blanket from atop of the toy. As a result,Baillargeon (1987) designed a study to test object permanence that did not require a motor movement from the infant. In her study, Baillargeon (1987) seated a child in front of a large rotating cardboard screen. She showed the infant several trials of the screen moving back and forth in a 180 degree motion (starting flat on the table and moving away from the child until it again came to rest flat on the table). On some trials Baillargeon placed a block behind the rotating screen. On these trials the screen would rotate away from the child and come to rest on the block (moving only approximately 110 degrees) (possible task). Finally, on some trials the block was placed in sight but then as the rotating screen blocked it from view it was removed, allowing the screen to rotate the full 180 degrees and seemingly right through the block (impossible task). Results from this study revealed that infants as young as three and a half months looked significantly longer at the seemingly impossible task when compared to the possible tasks (screen resting on the block or screen rotating through air). Baillargeon (1987) interpreted this longer looking time as evidence that the infants knew that the block continued to exist even though it was blocked from view and that they were ‘shocked’ that the screen seemingly rotated right through it. • Another accomplishment: - infants between 8- to 12-months of age are still susceptible to making the A-not-B Error - infants make inhibitory errors - infants typically master this skill around12 months of age Another task that Piaget is famous for involves having an experimenter show an infant a highly desirable toy and place it within reach of either their left or right hand. The placement location of the toy is referred to as ‘Location A.’ The desirable toy is then covered with an object, such as a blanket, and the infant is given the opportunity to retrieve the toy. After hiding and retrieving the toy several times at Location A, the experimenter moves the toy to the opposite side of the child (but in view of the child). This is referred to as ‘Location B.’When the toy is hidden again, and the child is given another chance to retrieve it, surprisingly infants between 8 and 12 months of age reach for Location A rather than Location B! This is what Piaget called the ‘A not B Error.’ But many child development researchers following Piaget have questioned whether infants really do not understand that the toy has moved locations and that it now exists elsewhere. It was noted that a small percentage of infants in Piaget's studies actually looked at Location B (where the toy was) while reaching for Location A. These observations lead other researchers to come up with and use a novel design – termed the 'violation of expectancy paradigm' - to further test Piaget’s notions about young infants’ ability to search for objects and their memory for object location. Preoperational Period (~ 2 to 6 or 7 years) • deferred imitation is taken as evidence of the formation of internal (mental) representations • development is seen as moving the child from being focused on self (egocentric) to becoming more interactive e.g. the three mountains problem they can only see things from their point of view • unable to solve many problems that are critical indicators of logical reasoning • focus on static states rather than transformations (e.g. trains example where two trains ran parallel to one another. Once they stopped children were asked which one traveled further (or was faster, or traveled for longer time). They focused usually on only one feature, usually the stopping point. They chose the train that stopped further down the track as the one that traveled further, went faster, and traveled for longer time. • those in this stage center on individual perceptually striking features of objects to the exclusion of other less striking features A) Conversations change from collective monologue to children attending to one another B) Symbols (personal, iconic) --> signs (conventions, arbitrary) - This applies to symbol use more generally (e.g., DeLoache’s scale model research) Symbol-Real World Relations • Judy DeLoache research (e.g., DeLoache 2002, 2004) - Child watches as “Little Snoopy” is hidden in model - Child told that “Big Snoopy” is hidden in same place in big room - Child asked to retrieve toy - Child has to understand symbolic relation between model and big room • 2 ½ year-olds don’t succeed on this task – they don’t know where to look for Big Snoopy in the big room • Explanation: Dual representation: to use a symbolic artifact, it must be represented mentally in two ways at the same time (as a real object and a symbol of something other than itself). (DeLoache, 2002) However when they put the scale model behind plexiglass some 2 year olds were more successful. C) Spatial perspective taking ability is also limited at this stage - Three mountain task (task is select a photo that matches another’s perspective) - Aim: Piaget and Inhelder (1956) wanted to find out at what age children decenter - i.e. become no longer egocentric. - Method: The child sits at a table, presented in front are three mountains. The mountains were different, with snow on top of one, a hut on another and a red cross on top of the other. The child was allowed to walk round the model, to look at it, then sit down at one side. A doll is then placed at various positions of the table. - The child is then shown 10 photographs of the mountains taken from different positions, and asked to indicate which showed the dolls view. Piaget assumed that if the child correctly picked out the card showing the doll's view, s/he was not egocentric. Egocentrism would be shown by the child who picked out the card showing the view s/he saw. - Findings - Four-year-olds always chose a picture which matched their own view, while six-year-olds showed some awareness of alternative perspectives. Only seven- and eight-year-olds consistently chose the correct picture. - Conclusion - At age 7, thinking is no longer egocentric as the child can see more than their own point of view. - Most 4-year-olds cannot do it - Piaget saw children as achieving this skill early in the next period • However … - children do better with simpler, more familiar scenes - example: 3- and 4-year-olds often succeed when the task is modified (e.g., Grover version; Borke, 1975) • there are a great many things that children at this age can’t do: they are preoperational • children at this stage are overly influenced by the appearance of things and have a great difficulty thinking about abstract concepts • They tend to focus on one aspect of a problem and completely ignore others (centration) Concrete Operations Period (~ 6 or 7 to 11 or 12 years) • children acquire an understanding of operations.  mental representations of dynamic as wel as static aspects of environment Conservation: the realization that an entity remains the same despite changes in its form • this ability is taken as the basis of all rational thinking • general form of conservation task: A = B B  B’ A ? B’ • Conservation Tasks: volume, number, and quantity - Children look at two identical glasses with same amount of juice in them. They recognize this. But when juice from one glass is poured into a taller skinnier one they think that it has more juice in it. Even though it doesn’t actually have more in it they think there is. Any possible limitations with this task? • There is some evidence that children may understand conservation earlier (Bruner, 1964; opaque screen) • During this stage, children become able to - understand that the operations performed can be reversed - focus on more than one aspect at a time Formal Operations Period (~ 11 or 12 years and on) • children can begin to think about the form of the argument (not just the content) • formal operational thinkers are capable of logical and scientific thinking (e.g., chemical problem in text) • they can engage in: hypothetical-deductive reasoning: the process by which the formal operational thinker systematically tests possible solutions to a problem and arrives at an answer that can be defended and explained; involves the formation and evaluation of hypotheses • thinkers at this stage are capable of Abstract thinking: thinkers at this stage are able to - better grasp abstract principles such as freedom, democracy and time - engage in more meaningful question asking, and take part in conversations about abstract concepts Metacognition: formal operation thinkers are capable of reflecting on their own thoughts • still find some forms of egocentrism in adolescents: - imaginary audience - an egocentric state where an individual imagines and believes that multitudes of people are enthusiastically listening to or watching him or her (e.g. they may spend extra time on make-up and hair to better appeal to the audience they feel they need to impress) - personal fable -cognitive distortion in which adolescents believe thhighly special and unlike  anyone else who has ever walked the earth. Think the world revolves around them Evaluating Piaget: • Strengths? • He did a lot of testing of his theories and found some support of them. Attempts to replicate his studies were successful • Served as a starting point for a lot of other research (asked a lot of questions, may not have answered them but at least the questions were there) • Limitations? • young childrens inarticulateness often creates a falsely pessimistic impression of their cognitive abilities • Baillargeon challenged piaget – he/she thought the concept of object permanence may actually develop much sooner than the age of 8-12 months • Newer results show that gradual improvements to memory (as opposed to uniform all at once change) is to show instead. • Research has shown that there is not always consistency across domains within a stage. A kid could be at a 9 grade level for math but only at a 6 grade level for reading • lack of emphasis on effects of culture • Kids have more important cognitive capabilities that he did not detect When examined closely, although he outs them in stages, the same changes often appear to be part of a gradual progression - link to age? Given a young child and an older one who both don’t understand a concept, the older one will be able to understand it faster - Week 3 – information processing theories • General Overview of the IPApproach • Two IP Theories: - Neo-Piagetian Approach (Robbie Case) - Psychometric Approach Defining assumptions of IP: 1. THINKING IS INFORMATION PROCESSING – rather than focusing on stages of development, they focus on the information that children represent, the processes that they apply to the information, and the memory limits that constrain the amount of info they can represent and process. more precise 2. Emphasis on precise analysis of change mechanisms - Identify the change mechanisms that contribute most to development and to specify exactly how these change mechanisms work together to produce cognitive growth. - Attempt to explain both how children of given ages have come as far as they have and why they have not gone further. 3. Change is produced by a process of continuous self-modification – outcomes generated by a child’s activities change the way the child will think in the future. Relation to Piagetian model? - both aim to answer questions “what develops?” and “how does development occur?” - both try to identify childrens cognitive capabilities and limits at various points in development - both try to explain how later more advanced understandings grow out of more primitive ones differences - IP approaches place greater emphasis on the role of processing limitations, strategies for overcoming the limitations, and knowledge about specific content. - IP places greater emphasis on precise analyses of change and on the contribution of ongoing cognitive activity to that change. - PIAGETIAN approach in contrast seeks to characterize childrens thinking across a broad range of tasks and content domains - IP processes assume that our understanding of how children think can be greatly enriched by knowledge of how adults think. - IP is a general model • information processing (IP) theories try to account for the fact that our thinking is constrained yet flexible • no single IP theory of cognitive development  IP theories share a set of assumptions (e.g., acquisition, storage and retrieval of info) • two main aspects to IP: structural characteristics (rigid) and processes (flexible) • change mechanisms: encoding, automatization, generalization, and strategy construction • strong focus on mechanisms lead to a different type of theory/model construction • usually, continuous change emphasized (no age defined categories): infant  adult Characteristics of IP (generally): 1) limited capacity (domain general vs. domain specific)  increases with age Components in the model: Sensory Memory: structural component of the system where information coming in from the senses is held only briefly before being passed forward or lost (briefly retaining large amounts of information before its lost - iconic and echoic stores most widely studied -E.g. Sperling (1960) presented college students with a 3x4 matrix of letters for 1/20 of a second. When asked immediately after, the students only re
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