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Psych3406-Final Exam Notes .doc

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PSYC 3604
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PSYC3604Final Exam Notes April 12 2014900 am FieldhouseRows 1 13 Chapter 6Stress Disorders and Health Psychology What is Stress Experiencing stress means experiencing events that we perceive as endangering our physical or psychological wellbeingthese events are usually referred to as stressors and the peoples reaction as the stress response Having control over a situation has an impact on the level of stress Unpredictability also makes some events especially stressful And Change in life that requires numerous readjustmentseven a positive changecan be perceived as stressfulTwo perspectivesStress 1 An imbalance in the bodys functioning OR 2 A subjective feeling produced by events perceived as uncontrollable and threatening stressorsStressors 1 Anything that disrupts physiological balance OR 2 Events that lead to feelings of stressThe Stress Response 1 The bodys adaptations designed to reestablish the balance OR 2 A response to the perceived demands of the situationPhysiological Responses to Stress When we face any type of stressorthe body mobilizes to handle the stressor The liver releases extra sugarglucoseto fuel our muscles and hormones are released to stimulate the conversions of fats and proteins to sugar Metabolism increasesprep for expending energy of physical activity Heart rate blood pressure and breathing rate increasemuscles tense up Digestion is curtailed Salvia and mucus dry up increasing the size of the air passage to the lungs The bodys natural pain killers endorphins are secreted Spleen releases more red blood cells MOST of these physiological responses result from the activation of two systems controlled by the hypothalamus oAutonomic nervous system Sympathetic division of this system oAdrenalcortical system A hormonereleasing system Basically fight or flight oHypothalamus first activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system oThe sympathetic system acts directly on muscles and internal organs to produce some bodily changeslike increased heart rateand stimulates the release of hormones like adrenaline 1oHypothalamus activated the adrenalcortical system by releasing corticotrophinrelease factor CRFwhich signals the pituitary gland to release ACTHACTH stimulates the outer layer of the adrenal glandsresulting in the release of more hormonesmostly Cortisolit releases about 30 other hormones tooeventually these hormones signal to the hippocampus to turn off this physiological response once stimuli is gone oTherefore the fight or flight response has its own feedback loop Stress TheoriesModelsHans Selye Explored the effects of chronic stressors and the severely damaging effects this can have on the bodyGeneral Adaptation Syndromeconsists of 3 phases Alarmthe body mobilizes to confront a threat by triggering sympathetic nervous system activity Resistancethe organism makes efforts to cope with the threat by fighting it or fleeing from it Exhaustionoccurs If the organism is unable to fight or flee from the threat and depletes physiological resources while trying to do so Focused on bodys physiological reaction to stressFightorflight response is engaged too longHe conducted lab studies in which he exposed animals to several types of prolonged stressorssuch as extreme cold and fatigueand found that regardless of the type of stress certain bodily changes inevitably occurred Enlarged adrenal glands Shrunken lymph nodesStomach ulcers Selyes work inspired the development of an entire field of psychology known as Health Psychologythis investigated the effects of stress and other psychological factors on physical illness Three models of the ways in which psychological factors affect physical disease drive most of the work in health psychology Direct effect model Psychological factors such as stressful experiences or certain personality characteristics directly cause changes in the physiology of the bodythis in turn cause or exacerbate diseaseexample of food consumptionpeople under a lot of stress tend to stop eating but some peoples eating habits increasewhich in turn my result in overeating and obesity Interactive model Psychological factors must interact with a preexisting biological vulnerability to a disease for an individual to develop a diseaseexcess stress contributes to disease in people who already have a predisposition or vulnerability to a disease 2Indirect Effects Model Psychological factors affect disease largely by influencing whether people engage in health promoting behavioursour diets the amount of exercise we get ectall this can influence our vulnerability to disease people under stress may be less prone to engage in healthy behaviours and more prone to engage in unhealthy behaviours LazurusFolkman Describe stress as a relationship between a personthe environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding herhis resources and endangering hisher well beingThe Role of PerceptionInterpretationLazarusFolkman 1988Stress itself is not a simple variable but a system of interdependent processes including appraisalcoping which mediate the frequency intensity duration and type of psychological and somatic responsePrimarySecondary AppraisalStress is the subjective reaction of a person to potential stressorsAccording to FolkmanLazarus in order for stress to be evoked two cognitive events must occurPrimary appraisal Person perceives an event as a threat to goalsSecondary appraisal Person concludes they do not have resources to cope with demands of threatening eventat either stage event could be perceived as nonstressfulStress and the Immune SystemThe immune system protects the body form diseasecausing microorganismsPsychoneuroimmunology PNI The study of the effcts of psychological factors on the functioning of the immune system Stress can have an effect on the immune system There has been a lot od research looking at the effects of stress on the immune system in animals oAnimals are most likely to show impairment of their immune system if exposed to stressors that are uncontrollable Robert Aderthe father of PNIDefines PNI as the study of the connection between the brain and the immune systemPsychological experiences ie stress can influence immune functioningPNI is the study of the interaction among emotions the brain and the immune systemuncontrollable stress also is related to impaired immune system in humans One studyexposed about 400 healthy volunteer either to a nasal wash containing one of five cold viruses or to an innocuous salt solution 3
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