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Religion midterm.doc

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RELI 1710
Betina Kuzmarov

Lecture # 1 Difference between a lie and a myth Lie- not truth Myth- consists somewhat truth What is a Myth? · Narrative – stories · Often with fantastic elements · Foundational to a community · Transmitting values · Relevant to that community Lecture # 2 History of Humanity - Assyrians: people, syria, east iraq. they speak aramic language, and hebrew, sack Northern Kingdom. They are the enemies of the jews. - Babylonians: enemies of the jews, cultural regions.They destroyed the 1st temple of the jews. They were used as a punishment.Thus, the jewish renewed their covenant obligations to god by making war in order to re- establish the Israelite nation - Persians: they destroyed the second temple, and they are ruled by king cyrus, who is also king of persia. King cyrus helps the Israelis re-build the temple in 515 BCE that was destroyed by the babilalions. Thus, the israelites were invited to return (c.538 BCE) King cyrus allowed the jews to return to their homeland after the babylonian conquest. - - After the destruction of the Second Temple, the synagogue became the focus of Jewish life and worship. - second temple was destroyed by the romans. - Ezra – Man who started the collection of Scriptures · Judaism moves from henotheism (many gods) to monotheism (one god) · Judaism Vs. “ the religion of the Israelites Ishmaelite: they settled in egypt for 3 years. They are a shia set that clamed to be the descendant of ismael. Greek: - People wanted to dress like the greeks and go to greek theatres. - Greeks and romans mocked the jews. - The jews came up with a solution called “Epispasm” they take a needle and a thread and take extra skin from a boy private part. - Greek culture remains dominant. - The romans speak latin. - Sephardic – Spain, Palestine, Africa Ashkenazi – Eastern European Three elements of Judaism 1. One God – monotheist [ shema; is a prayer ] Orthodoxy • Correct thought [Statement (creed) prescription] modern movements, strict traditional belief binding character of the Torah and Halakhah 2. The torah is the word of God • The scripture is authoritative in Judaism, the first 5 books in hebrew scripture, also the whole of scripture, also the whole of corpus of relevation including oral torah. “Methilogical” • law, Nevi’m=prophet Ketuvim= writings. they are the 3 section of hebrew bible in order • 3. FUTURE SALIVATION: (WE DON’T NEED THE DEFINTION FOR IT BUT ITS THE 3RD ELEMENT OF JUDAISM.) Abraham & Sarah · God commands them to pack and to leave to the promise land.Once Abraham and Sarah came to the promised land , which is called the “UR” in C1900-1700 BCE there were people living there ( Canaanites ) Ba’al and Asherah is the gods of canaanites. [The believe of one god but the exclusion to others Abraham and Sarah weren’t allowed to enter the land they were promised. - Thus they wondered around the desert for 40 years - They came across Mt. Sinai Abraham and Sarah were Childless ( couldn’t conceive ) They settled in Canaan. As result Abraham Impregnated Hagaar (the maid) and she gave birth to Ismail · But later Sarah Conceived and had Isaac · Abraham was now father to two children · Sarah is jealous of Hagaar and asks For Hagaar and Ismail be kicked out of the house · thus, abraham is the first person of humanity he answers calls of god. Isacc (English name) Jacob/ Israel (has a dream he wrestles with god ) thrives and struggles with god God of Abraham Isacc and Jacob the father of jacob - The three Patriarchs - 1st abraham: he is one of the 3 fathers and his songs will be the next two - 2nd isac: father of jacob - 3rd jacob: the song of isaac, he had12 tribes” children” The anointing of kings of Judaism: is the pouring oil on their heads, symbolizing • their appointment. • Hashanah: the first festival of the Jewish Year. The Israelites in Egypt ; settle there for 3 years • The Israelites in Egypt: 400 years, they’re community is growing. The Hebrews were called the Hebrews. politics pharaohs were being threatened from outside by another nations so hebrews become slaves of Pharaohs. Pharaohs wanted to kill all the boys of jewish house hold except that boy that a princess finds him on a river from pharaohs. He then realizes he’s one of the hebrews, being persecuted and punished, he kills an Egyptian over lord for torturing a slave. • - Moses * The pharaoh commands that the first male child of each family be killed * Refer to the story of Moses and the Pharaoh * The bush on the fire talks to Moses, he asks the bush who are you. However, it answers “i am who i am: “YHWH” Exodus 12500 CE * when moses splits the ocean in half with a staff. * God is present and he is protecting them. * passover, is when they pass over the ocean. -Monotheism [Believe there is only one God] Henotheism: Belive loyality to worsship one god but to the exclusion to all others. Joshua: 6th book of the bible, military commander set up 12, or over by judges David is the Kind of kings Jews adore, one of the Monarchy - Most beloved king - Consolidation of the kingdom: He brings all 12 tribes in to 1 ( creating a nation called Israel) - he ruled 1000-960 BCE, he is the one who represents the (golden age of Ismael) - most famous king - politically stability, economics stability and wealth - these people are ruled by king. when they have the approval of god himself. - he was credited for peace and prosperity - Jerusalem: David picks a new city to make the capital of his nation, he picks jerusalem, david concurs it and makes it the capital city of Israel.Thats when jerusalem enters history. Thus, this place doesn’t favor any of the 12 tribes. Solomon (ruled 960 – 21 BCE ) - Solomon is also beloved - Solomon is the son of david. - Solomon builds first Jewish temple ( completed c. 931 BCE) - Solomon is renowned for his wealth , wisdom, and international power - it will last till 586-587 Monarchy Breaks down. Monarchy breaks down - 12 tribes- united monarchy- divided into 2 kingdoms · Judah in the South: in israel · Israel in the North ( north of the dead sea) - Changing political power internationally means Israel suddenly has new enemies. New Enemies • Assyrian sack Northern Kingdom. · Babylonians Sack Judah ( 587 BCE) · Nebuchadnezzar: Oh god. -Levels Jerusalem -Destroys the first temple - Scatters the aristocracy and land owners · Three Features of this new Judaism - The Diaspora Jew ( outside Jerusalem) : develop outside of israel, not all jews that left return. There are still jews in Egypt - The prophet - The Septuagint ( LXX) : a greek translation of the Hebrew Bible developed in the Diaspora. ~ The prophet will come and answer it all [God used the Babylonians as a punishment] Main Sects - Sadducees: [ work with roman] – have all the power; literalistic. They represent priest hood, wealthy governors. When the romans arrived the sadducees worked with them. They have the best interested in stability. They rejected the idea of the oral Torah. - Pharisees – believe in resurrection , have the torah ; have all the people. They belived in Angels - Sicarii: They have long histories roman occupations. Named by their socials (use daggers to attack their foes) They were also the Assassin.s - Zealots:Rebel, they are willing to die for their god. They will attack roman caravans. - Christians – Part their own way - Pharisees: believed in the angels, they can make stuff up because they have special reservations from god. They all have the people. · Thus the Pharisees are left after the Romans are destroyed the second temple War of Independence 1. takes place in 66 -73 CE Jewish war Rome destroys the second temple in 70 CE 2. 132- 35 CE - Bar KochbaRevolt: Jews reformulated their religion to incorporate , synagogue, Talmud and Rabbis because after they were unsuccessful to attempt to free themselves from roman rule in jewish war and bar kochba rebellion. Soon is squashed by Rome - highest pint closer to god - the last temple the jews have is Jerusalem. Lecture #3 Rabbinic Judaism Synagogue Vs temple · A synagogue vs temple: House of assembly jewish house for prayer and study. It is where religion happens in Judaism many communities with there own synagogues you only need a priest when there is a sacrifice. With no temple synagogue becomes a place where religion happens. · Its lead by a rabbi prayer is the central religious act sacrifice would require an altar in the center. · Dining room:The dinning room table becomes the central of the religious act. no temple no sacrifice. no priest no sacrifice · sacrifices requires an altar which is that central square of dining room table becomes a central locations. · Judaism is a religion of purity so you can enter the temple and due your sacrifice. · The women keeps the purity how the meal is set and how things are run.. · Talmud: is a product of the rabies. The destruction of the temple changed everything for judaism · product of the rabies. it is jewish oral Torah, comprised of Torah( the pentateuch) The famous commentator is Rashi Jewish bible. · Rabbi: jehuda ha-nasi is also known as Patriarch Judah. Moses Maimonides · During the 12 century Rabbi Moses everything is already predestined for you the Jews and Muslim discussed this. · The Jews started to get expelled from the lands during the fight of the Christian and Muslims. · Jews are blamed for death and plague. · Poland was new and it opened its doors to Jewish middle class. · Yiddish new Jewish language due to the nomadic migration in Germany and Poland. th · 18 Century · Jews find new freedom to be whatever they want doctors businessmen. · Jews where threatened and beat by the Christians. · Jews and Muslims have discussion together, and not against each other. · First to bring greek and Roman philosophies to determine if people get free written originally in arabic. · deals with concept of free will and God. Reponses to Persecution · Kabbalah: is the jewish school of mysticism. · Massa a king that will free the Jews Nathan of Gaza he will have many followers. · The Muslim and Christian did not like shabbatai Zvi they asked him to convert he is the Jewish Massa him and his followers converted to Islam. · Judaism had a bad track to people claiming to be the Massa. Messaia:17 new messaia appears (shabbatai Zvi (1666CE& disliked by muslims capture by muslims given the option convert or die. all his followers convert to islam These messiahs are so good for jews Moses Mendelssohn ( 18th c) Acculturation Liberal interpretation of Torah. · The Jews wanted to fit in and be part of the Christian community with food drinks and politics · Jewish culture is not what you dress eat or drink is what you believe and holy and culturally German eating Christian food his son converted to Christianity its too difficult to be Jewish. · Judaism liberal spectrum had to modernize Jewish scriptures before everything. · Ethical kosher don’t eat MacDonald • Reform judaism: the law of tora is considered binding. Thus, reform judaism started in Germany. • Reformism: be jewish and participate in non jewish culture which is known as reformism. Reform judaism is on the liberal spectrum because they must interpret jewish scriptures in order to modern by them. Modern reform judaism can eat bacon, pork. • ethical couture: means not eat at mcdonalds. In according to ethics and not purity. • Conservatives judaism · If its in scripture you cant take it away if its culture developed you can give that away dress but if its food or Sabbath not working one day you cant take that away. · More literal scriptures are timelessness more stricter compare to its liberal counterpart. · conservative judaism: occupying the middle ground of judaism. Making distinction between scripture and tradition, clothes goes our diet stays tradition vs scripture, takes a stricter interpretation of Tora. · Jehuda Halevi: spanish hebrew philosopher that migrated to palestine, he was famous for his work. Samon Raphael: · the torah is god words you can never take it away. · Reform Judaism can do what ever they want. · strict interoperation of Torah · as gods word Torah is not to be negotiated with · most strict about practice. MOre than conservatism. Zionism · 1860-1904 · Theodor Herzl the Jews will never have security as long as they don’t have there own lands. · The holocaust changed every thing for the Jewish communities. · Independence, security, and language · mixed reception among jews. · modern movements to secure a jewish home-land in Palestine, which led to formation of the state of Israel. Holocaust · ancient Israelite ritual meaning “all consuming sacrifical fire,’ used in modern “all note the destruction of jews and others under the Nazis. · Anti-semitism=racism · Adolt Hitler 1993 is appointed( CHancellor of Germany) increasing persecution and public traits are inherited base on the groups we come from ex, I am black and I’m a gangster and drug dealers because my people are so increasing persuction and public harassment of German Jews. · Racism is an invention there is no such thing as race there is ethnicity. · The Jews where thriving before the holocaust there was no raism the Christians did not like the Jews. · November 9/10/1938 Hitler is elected he plans to exterminate the Jews to prevent them from thriving and being a threat 10,000 bodies a day killed gas over load work or assassination or mass graves and melted. · 6 million Jews died 4 Million in camps and some died due to hunger and the war. -Antiochus Epipanes IV: defied the altar by sacrificing a pig on it. Rosh Christianity · All the followers of Christians where originally Jewish Jesus was Jewish. · During the time of Roman occupation the Qumran were mad at the Jewish temples ruins due to the Romans occupation. · Many people claimed to be the Messiahs and free the Jewish people there claims earned them to be assassinated by the Romans. · Jesus Nazareth was born in 4 BCE he was born in the Galileo Passion · Passion Jesus preached about god and is seen as a healer and performing nature miracles raising those of the dead and walking on water his divineness. · He was crucified by the Romans · Many people came to live in Jerusalem it was a tent over crowding city filled with men. · Christians believe that Jesus has been resurrected. · Stage Two –Paul: · Diaspora Paul was a persecutor many names change with identity during the century Paul lived in Damascus. · Paul is redefying Judaism he is a Jewish follower of Jesus. · 40-55 CE Paul traveled a lot and kept in contact through letters. · Circumcision and no food restrictions (Kashrut) Christianity’s: · Gnostics are Christians in a form of Knowledge sacred knowledge in Jesus he was never human just pure sprit. Gnosis:jesus just appeard, he wasn't a human just a spirit · Hersey wrong belife. Orthodoxy: good belief. · Christianity would say: if jesus wasn’t human he didn’t really die and if he didn’t really die there is no resection pro flash: jesus was really human like us. Marcion: rejected Gospel Orthodox pro flesh Jesus was human Doestics Jesus anti-flesh was not human. Marcion is one of them and arguing that the world is created by the good god but by an evil God or Jewish God. All forms of Jewishness that survives in this new Christian writing should be purged – example: letter of Pauls. Marcion is anti-Jewish. Constantine: Roman emperor (273-337) who legalized and promoted Christianity. · Romans: killed Christians they were murdered for fun and games by lions they where killed and prosecuted. · Constantine has a dream he wins a battle and gets to be emperor. Edict of Milan: 313 CE it’s no longer dangerous to be Christian. · Christianity expands across the Roman Empire you can only be Christian. · Imperial Christian army was created stability. Athanasius: argues that Jesus and God where identical and Jesus always existed. 4TH Century Alexandria Jesus and God where similar cant be same cause Jesus was born. Nicea: believed Jesus is son of God and that Jesus and God are equal and are co eternal. Theotokos: Mary mother of God in Christianity. Mary was born without sin made it okay for her to be mother of God. Nestoris: · believed he is 100 percent human and 100 present divine he had two people in him he was born human and his divine part always existed. Monophysites: Jesus had one part to him. Council of Chalcedon 451 compromise that Jesus had Both human and nature in him. Lecture 4 Christian History, Origins - 1 Century: Jewish history – All Christians and first followers of Jesus were Jewish. Importantly, Jesus himself was Jewish. It is not anymore! • Jewish Sects: The Zealors and Sicarri groups actually have messiah’s. They develop because, they are rallying around a warrior who stands up and says “I am the messiah that Israel has been waiting for and I am going to throw off Roman • occupation.” The problem is that a couple do it at the same time, and they start fighting each other. So you have got numerous messiah’s stepping up to say they are the messiah’s and different groups following them to fight the Romans. - Before and after Jesus, we have a messianic claimants – people claiming to be the messiah’s. All of them meet the same faith, Rome kills them! • Galilee: Jesus is born in Galilee – the Galilee is in the North side – Galilee is mentioned once in Hebrew bible and is given the insulting term “Galilee of the gentiles”  jews that live there are not fully jew because they live so far away from the heart of Judaism – so nobody knew Galilee because of its bad reputation. • Crucifixion: Jesus has his protest and arrested by Rome and executed the next day. Killed in the traditional Roman way of executing political trouble makers  Crucifixion is public and it is slow and it is political. Easy to hang somebody and leave hanging but it doesn’t really suffer. Crucifixion means suffer and can be there for days for everybody to see and that is a political statement that Rome makes to any troublemakers. You die of suffocation when you are crucified. So it was Romans that killed Jesus and not the Jews – killed by Tome for being the messiah, the jews might have rejected them as a messiah but it was Rome that executed him. According to the new testament stories, Christianity spread like wild fire – • probably not accurate – evidence show that the spread was modest and slow. It takes 120 years after death of Jesus, for Roman non-Christian to mention Jesus or Christianity. It takes 70 years for a Jewish non-Christian writer to mention Jesus. • Paul in response to this stops persecuting and becomes the Champion of this movement – establishing communities of Christ followers around the meditarian – he is from tarsus but he starts his traveling towards Rome and Spain. He gets executed but we have no records of his execution or any evidence as he was on his way to Spain. Docetics: • Another form of Christianity developing is Docetics related to nostics – Christians who champion not faith on Jesus but special kind of knowledge. So if has special kind of knowledge on Jesus Christ then they are saved. Part of that knowledge is to recognize that Jesus was actually never human. He took on the appearance of a human and thats where the word Docetic come from. He was pure spirit – spirit essentially good and the physical world is illusion and bad. Spirit is the perfect form of everything. So Jesus must have appeared to be human. So Decetics are anti-flesh, anti-material. And there are other groups of Christians that are coming to different conclusions who Jesus was and how people are suppose to relate to him. There were also orthodox (different from Judaism) – in Christianity  proper thinking. They think they are the one who has proper belief and thinking. - Whom to believe? All these groups think they have the proper thinking until one of them has an army  it will be the Orthodox group that will become the official form of Chrisitanity. They will argue against Marcion that Jesus was fully Jewish and they will argue against Docetics that Jesus was fully human. Orthodox is pro- flesh  that Jesus was fully human and they are pro-Jewish – Jesus was Jewish.  therefore, this version becomes Christianity. - All of these variety of grthps changes because of Constantine (who was a Roman emperor in the era of 4 century) where Christianity has been going through persecution at the hands of Roman state. Rome thought that Christianity is a dangerous religion. – Christians were eaten by lions and this was seen as Roman entertainment. - Constantine converts and fighting to become an emperor. A night before he has a dream and he sees a sign that says “conquer in this sign” – the sign is the Greek letter Chi-Rho  which is the first three letter of English and Christian symbol for the name of Christ. He sees this image and puts it on his standards. And he wins, and he is thinking this God rocks and he wins and becomes the emperor. As a response, he issues the Edict of Milan, 313 CE- which is an edict of religious freedom – it says all religions can be free and does not favor Christianity but only makes it legal for the first time. It is no longer dangerous or illegal to be Christian in Roman Empire. Christianity grows exponentially. Christianity also changes because of Constantine, it is now imperial religion – religion with an empire and army. - But Constantine does not like bickering so he has these groups in his empire disagreeing with each other. So Arius from Akexandria argues that Jesus was born like all of us therefore there was a time when he did not exist. Which means that Jesus is secondary and lesser than God  Homou-ousion: similar substance to God. They were not identical. - Athanasius would disagree and argued that Jesus had always existed but he just manifested himself amongst humans at a particular time. And Jesus and God are identical substance and this is called homo-ousion: same substance. - Constantine gathers the bishops in Nicea, Turkey in 325 CE and before the two parties arguments, he issues an edict. - The edict is the Nicean creed which has the effect of establishing the concept of the Trinity that Jesus, Father and Holy Spirit are exactly the same – Nicea: “We believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only sons of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, light from light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, of one Being (homo-ousions) with the Father...”  begotten means not born!  this creed has a political context. So Nicea establishdes that Jesus and God are equal, they are both Co-eternal which means that Hesus goes back to the creation of the universe – always existed! Jesus and god are co-eternal and consubstantial.  this results into more debate! – if Jesus and God are the same then what does that make Mary? The mother of God? Some Chrisitans would say yes and would call her Theotokos = bearer of God. Some Chrisitians will have find it illogical where a human is mother of God in the first century – when God always existed.  they will call Mary Christotokos = bearer of Christ, if the messiah. - They are all Chrisitans but there are different ways of understanding and rationalizing relationship of Jesus with God. Theotokos will win the debate – thanks to the emperor – Mary is knwown in Christianity as mother of God.  another debate: if Mary was born like all of us, with sun, how can she really be the mother of God? So Chrisitanity, specially Catholicism will end up with a position called the immaculate conception – which refers to the birth of Mary – Mary was born without sin. According to Christianity, all humans are born with sun, but Mary was born immaculately  without sin. - - There is also a debate about the nature of Jesus’s human part and divine part – Christians believe that Jesus was 100% human and 100% divine. Nestorius will argue that Jesus had two persons: human and divine. Only the human part was born in human fashion – the divine part was co-eternal. - Nestorius was opposed by Monophysites – the human element of Jesus was completely swallowed up into the divine one. Jesus had one nature – mono (one) + physis (nature) - The council of Chalcedon, 451 (last major theological debate about Jesus) – arrive in compromise between Rome and Constantinople – Jesus was one person (the mono) but with both human and divine natures in him. - The only reason Vatican two happens and came to some of its decisions is because the people Catholics on the ground want some change in Catholic practices – they want some change and modernization. Theology extremely complex and influenced by all sort of directions – historical, culture and
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