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Islam Definitions.docx

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RELI 1710
Zeba Crook

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Abbasids: classical Muslim dynasty, ruling at Baghdad, eighth to thirteenth centuries C.E. Abdallah: Abduh: Abu Bakr: companion of the Prophet Muhammad and first caliph (d. 634) Abu Talib: Uncle of Muhammad Adah: Ahl al-kitab/people of the book: Aisha: Al-Ghazali: great thinker (1058-1111 C.E.) who synthesized orthodox Islamic thought and Sufism 'Ali: nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad and the fourth caliph (d. 661); considered by Shi’ited to be the first imam or successor to Muhammad Allah: “the God”; Quranic designation for the one God Amina bint Wahb: Ansar: Arabia: A peninsula in southwestern Asia that lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Battle of Badr: Caliph/Khalifah: “deputy,” also “successor” to the Prophet Muhammad as leader of Islam Dar al-Harb: rest of the world is the “abode of warfare” because they are not under ummah Muslim control Dar al-Islam: “abode of Islam”; territories of the ummah under Muslim control Dhikr: “remembrance”; spiritual exercises in Sufism focusing the consciousness on God Fatihah: Fatwa: Hadith: a saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad transmitted through a trustworthy chain of reporters; the collection of hadiths Hagar: wife of Abraham, mother of Ishmael, and ancestress of the Muslims Hajj: annual pilgrimage to Mecca Halal: Hanbali law: Haram: forbidden, such as certain actions or food Hasan: Grandson of Muhammad. Was poisoned by his own wife on the orders of Mu’awiyah. Was appointed to be Imam, but is then killed Hijab: Hijra: emigration of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. Husayn: brother of Hasan; supposed to take over as Imam because of brother’s death. Battles with Yazid (Mu’awiyah’s son) 'Id al-Adha: 'Id al-Fitr: Ijma': “concensus”; for formulating Muslim law, consensus among the legal scholars is neccessary Ijtihad: independent legal reasoning in Islam; one who does this is a mujtahid Imam: Islamic scholar and leader, especially in ritual prayer; for Shi’ites, the proper successors to the Prophet are called Imams Imamis: Iman: “faith,” complete certitude about the truthe of Islamu Iqbal: Ishmael: son of Abraham and Hagar, ancestor of the Muslims Isma'ilis: Isnad: the chain of transmitters for a particular hadith in Islam Jahiliyyah: The time of ignorance; unenlightened period Jihad: “striving” for religious perfection and for God’s cause including bearing arms in defence of Islam if necessary Ka'bah: the cube-shaped stone shrine in the Great Mosque at Mecca, focal point of prayer and pilgrimage for Muslims Kalam: Karbalah: Khadija: the first wife (d. 619) if the Prophet Muhammad Kharijites: “s
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