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Soci terms for exam.docx

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Carleton University
SOCI 1001
Tamy Superle

Status set: a term used to describe all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time Master status: a term used to describe the most important statuses a person occupies Social institution: a set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs Common Sense Belief about Inequality: • Anyone can achieve material success if they work hard enough • Everyone has the same opportunity to get ahead • If you are not successful it is a result of personal failing Meritocracy: • Getting ahead is based on individual merit, which is generally viewed as a combination of factors including innate abilities, working hard, having the right attitude, and having high moral character and integrity The Myth of Meriotcracy: • Great many factors that impact on a person’s ability to succeed • Ascribed statuses play a large role in the opportunities and barriers that people face (the deck is stacked) • There are structural, not individual! • Our ascribed statuses impact on our achieved statuses Social Structures • The way in which society is organized into predictable relationships, patterns of social interaction. • Social structure shapes the distribution of inequality Social Stratification • A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy (based on property, prestige, and power) Principles of Social Stratification • Five principles: 1. It’s social, not “natural.” 2. It’s persistent, even as societies change. 3. It’s omnipresent in nearly all complex societies. 4. It’s supported by ideology. 5. It’s micro- as well as a macro-level. Social Inequality • The long term existence of significant differences in access to goods and services among social groups. • Differences in wealth, prestige and power Dimensions of Social Inequality • Social class • Gender • Race • Ethnicity • Religion • Age • Sexual identity • Disability Social inequality results in and from the prejudice, discrimination, and oppression of certain people and groups Prejudice: • Arbitrary attitudes or beliefs and unfair bias towards or against a person/group. • Based on little or no experience and projected onto entire group. • Prejudice is an individual’s internal perspective. Discrimination • Action based on prejudice. Excluding, ignoring, avoiding, threatening, ridiculing, jokes, slurs, violence, unfair treatment. • Discrimination is an individual’s external behavior Systematic Oppression • Embedded in institutions such as: media, family, religion, education, language, economics, criminal justice and in cultural definitions of what is normal, real, correct, beautiful and valuable. • Socially sanctioned and maintains an imbalance of power Impacts of Social Inequality • Micro and Macro Consequences including: – Health – Housing – Quality of life – Poverty – Violence – Political unrest Social Class • The relative location of a person or group within a larger society, based on wealth, power, prestige, or other valued resources • In a class system people can move ‘up’ (or ‘down’), but it is heavily dependent on family and ascribed factors (i.e. race and gender) Impact of Class Position: • Class at birth affects life chances: ability to fulfill one’s potential • Persons in the same class more likely to associate with each other, intermarry, have similar hobbies, tastes, political views Variables of Social Class • Power – The degree to which a person can control other people • Wealth – Objects or symbols owned by people which have value attached to them • Prestige – The degree of respect, favourable regard, or importance accorded to a person by members of society Types of Resources: • influence our likelihood for social mobility 1. Material 2. Social (prestige, connections, social networks) 3. Cultural (derived from education, knowledge, skills, personal advantage) Cultural Capital: Whats the big deal? • Multiple intersections of inequality impact each other. • Those who occupy a lower socio-economic position have barriers to education, networks, skills etc. (social and cultural capital) that would facilitate upward social mobility. Income Inequality • Gap between the rich and the poor Wealth: • Wealth: “net worth” – The sum total of assets minus liabilities. – Is often inherited Wealth Inequality: • Unequal distribution of assets within a population. • Growing faster than ever before Class Inequalities and Health: • More wealth, more health • Less wealth, less health Consequence of Inequality • Impact on children – Long-term societal consequences • Political instability – Occupy Wall Street • Violence • Poverty Consequences of Child Poverty • Poor Children Are: • More likely to experience a host of immediate and long-term health negative outcomes • Less likely to live in safe neighbourhoods • At disproportionate risk of exposure to environmental contaminants • Have problems concentrating and learning Terms: • The Global Economy • Over-consumption • Colonialism • Neo-Colonialism • Global Capitalism • Race to the bottom • Global Stratification of Health Care • Maternal Mortality Wealth and Poverty in Global perspective • Global Stratification: the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis • The gap between the rich and the poor worldwide is growing Define Global inequality • There has been a debate over the best way to define global inequality, since these definitions imply judgments about countries, particularly those with low incomes. The Levels of Development Approach • There are several ways of describing global inequality. • Terminology based on levels of development includes concepts such as developed nations, developing nations, less developed nations, and underdevelopment
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