• Gender Stratification: the unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between men and women.
• Sex: genetically male or female (biological standpoint); determines role in reproduction.
• Gender: the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs,
and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity.”
• Gender dichotomy: any variable, which has only two categories. These categories are meant to be mutually exclusive
(nothing can belong simultaneously to both parts) and joint exhaustive (everything must belong to one part or the other).
Dichotomies often form the basis of divisions and inequality because on is valued more.
• Intersectionality: various socially and culturally constructed categories (race/ethnicity, gender, sexuality, socio
economic, disability, age, nationality, etc.) all interact on multiple levels to manifest themselves as inequality in society.
• Intersexed body: biological facts associated with being born male or female. Intersexed infants (previously
hermaphrodites) are born with hormonal, anatomical, and genetic configurations.
• Transgender: experiencing genderidentity in one of many nontradition ways. “Trans” means to cross or change:
socially accepted gender codes through our appearance (dress), behaviours (gender roles), natural biology (neither totally
male nor female), or conflict between our internalized gender and biological sex.
• Gender Inequality: social structures privilege men as a group and oppress women as a group. Gender differences are
equated with female inferiority. There is nothing natural about the gender distinctions that we draw.
• Dividing people by gender is legitimated through the claim that difference all comes from physiology
• Gender and sex are not equivalent
• Gender does not flow from genetalia and reproductive organs
• Patriarchy, sexism, institutional sexism
• Biological Essentialism: school of thought that views gender differences as reflection of biological differences between
women and men (nature).
• Ignores historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality
• Tends to generalize from the average, ignoring variations within the gender groups
• Is little or no evidence that directly supports essentialists’ major claims
• Ignores the role of power
• Social construction: regards gender differences as constructed by social structure and culture. The perspective that there
is not a natural or objective basis to reality. All knowledge, customs, habits, etc., no matter how basic and natural they
seem, are the byproducts (mostly unintended or unconscious) of countless human choices rather than resulting from
divine will or nature.
• Gender is a social construction: accomplishment, ongoing, accountable, starts young, results…
• Sexism, discrimination, harassment, and violence
• Make less income than men
• Are at a higher risk of living in poverty, especially if they are a single parents or another marginalized status
• Are responsible for the majority of the domestic labour and childcare
• Gender roles: the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned
through the socialization process.
• Cultural expectations of men and women in a particular society, including the division of labour.
• We learn “proper’ gender roles from multiple sources, media is a significant source
• “Proper” gender roles are reinforced through the media representation of women and men
• Gender Identity: a person’s perception of the self as female or male.