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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 1001
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
A Gender Identity Contradictory Messages1 New mainstream the internet billboards commercials and various new forms of advertising surround young people with images of barely covered bodies suggestive and scantily clad models striking sensual posesB 2 Young people are also taught that sex and sexuality are a source of shame embarrassment dangerous and something to be fearedRememberC Taught to be secretive to feel conflicted and guiltyD Critics associate reality television with the degeneration of culture expressionaudiences ie simplistic culture for the degenerate massesBut there is a long tradition of criticizing high culture in favor of low culture in democraciesE JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778Romantic and liberal philosophers like Rousseau were critical of high culture because it is seen as reinforcing glorifying and justifying the privilege of a small ruling class F If politics in a democracy is meant to be rule of by and for the people then cultural expression in a democracy ought to be of by and for the people as wellG Paradox when democracy replaces the old ruling class you get a new class of professional democratic politicians just as when sport becomes form of popular entertainment you get professional class of athletes playing for moneyHreality television and sports can be seen as cultural expressions of democratic ideals eg selfgovernment equality of opportunity meritocracyI The goal of MTV is to create and promote a lifestyle built around perpetual youth and the wholesale replacement of adult life with a kind of infinite adolescenceJ The Feedback Loop of Reality TVAnthony Giddens describes selfidentity as reflexiveReflexivityfeedback loop1 Feedback Heightened sense of selfawareness we have about our identity and the obligation to consciously create a unique identity2 Loop created between reality and symbolic representations of realityWe are more selfaware and critical of the mediaHowever we are more saturated by the media than everAnd we have no choice but to construct an identityTherefore young people end up using reality television shows as a resource to construct their identityaSubculture Definition b Concept encompassing a diversity cb Subculture Definition d Concept encompassing a diversity of social groupsAre not static e Constantly changing fracturing splinteringStudied commercialized and exploited by the large corps c Symbolic Interactionism The Chicago School Theoretical paradigm of symbolic interactionism developed by sociologist working at the University of Chicago in 1920 and 30sArgues sociology must seek to understand the meaning of the social interactions the make up everyday lives routines habits and actions vs what Marx arguesBorrowed methods from anthropologist lived with the people they were studying observe their everyday interactions dialects posturing dress and so on Reformers d Symbolic Interactionism The Chicago School Theoretical paradigm of symbolic interactionism developed by sociologist working at the University of Chicago in 1920 and 30sArgues sociology must seek to understand the meaning of the social interactions the make up everyday lives routines habits and actions vs what Marx arguesBorrowed methods from anthropologist lived with the people they were studying observe their everyday interactions dialects posturing dress and so on Reformers e Symbolic Interactionism The Chicago School Theoretical paradigm of symbolic interactionism developed by sociologist working at the University of Chicago in 1920 and 30sArgues sociology must seek to understand the meaning of the social interactions the make up everyday lives routines habits and actions vs what Marx arguesBorrowed methods from anthropologist lived with the people they were studying observe their everyday interactions dialects posturing dress and so on Reformers Progressive f Reformers platform did revolve around better working conditions a family wage for workingmen and progress towards equal rights for women g platform did revolve around better working conditions a family wage for workingmen and progress towards equal rights for women h platform did revolve around better working conditions a family wage for workingmen and progress towards equal rights for women i Problems with Reform 1 Blaming the victim Blamed the poverty of the working class on alcoholism lack of selfcontrol and frivolous spendingIgnored the logical connection between alcoholism and depression dangerous work brutally long hours and nearstarvation wages 2 Crude medicopsychological argumentsInherited mental defects blamed for criminal Niiot delinquent behaviourCircular people commit crimes because they have the criminality gene we know they have the gene because theyve committed a crime 3 Strong xenophobic tendencies j Problems with Reform 1 Blaming the victim Blamed the poverty of the working class on alcoholism lack of selfcontrol and frivolous spendingIgnored the logical connection between alcoholism and depression dangerous work brutally long hours and nearstarvation wages 2 Crude medicopsychological argumentsInherited mental defects blamed for criminal Niiot delinquent behaviourCircular people commit crimes because they have the criminality gene we know they have the gene because theyve committed a crime 3 Strong xenophobic tendencies kFear of outsidersforeignerstargeted l Robert Mertons Strain Theory Merton subcultures teach people goals values ideals as well as acceptable means for achieving those goals which can be consistent Niiot inconsistent with the goals and means accepted in mainstream society 1 Conformity most people would accept both societys goals and sanctioned means ie pursuit of wealth Legal employment However many people experience a kind of strain between societys goals and the acceptable means and so people adapt in 4 ways1 Ritualism accepted the means lived by the rules go to work everyday but disagreed with the goals of conventional mainstream society2 Ritualism lived by the rules but disagreed with the goals of convention mainstream society3Innovators agree with mainstream societys values the pursuit of wealth and possessions but lack acceptable means for achieving these ideals Niiot use means which are not socially acceptable4Reatreatism drop out not seeking to change Niiot accept societys goals5Rebllion seek to change societys values and the acceptable meansMax Weber III Critical of Marxism economic determinism IIIII Debate w Marxs GhostWeber argued that Marxism tended to explain everything about society history culture religion etc with reference to the logic of capitalism the profit motive and the needs of capitalWeber tried to strike a balance between the force of ideasculture and economicmaterial conditions in shaping a given culture IV The ethic selfdenial and workOnly the elect destined for heavenSalvation was predestined of foreordainedDoctrines of predestination and the elect create great anxiety in worshippers to know Gods plan and their fateWork defined as an expression and devotion to GodWork and asceticism ie selfdenial become two key sources of refuge from anxietyMaterial success becomes the most important sign that one belongs to elect The calling ethic today
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