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Sociology Master Page.doc

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Carleton University
SOCI 1001

Sept 24 2012Week 3Theory Research and ValuesAuguste Comte 17981857 used scientific method to understand the social worldCoined the term sociologyVision of ideal societyHerbert Spencer18201903Believed he had discovered scientific laws governing the operation of societyTheorized societies evolve the same as biological species doSocial inequalities necessary for societies to evolve Social DarwinismFounding of sociologyTension between belief in importance of science and vision of ideal societyTension reflected in early figures of sociologyMarxDurkheimTheory tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are relatedSociological ideas are usually expressed in the form of theoriesResearch Process of carefully observing social reality often to test a theory or assess its validityAfter sociologists conduct research they also formulate theories based on their findingsValues ideas about what is good bad right and wrongValues help sociologists formulate and favour certain theories over othersValues can influence over our perceptions about research data objectivitysubjectivityScientific Versus Unscientific ThinkingBiases and values influence our observationsBiases often lead us to draw incorrect conclusions about what we seeScientific thinking and research help avoid incorrect conclusions based on personal experience opinion values or biasesSociological Theory and TheoristsFunctionalism How is social order supported by macrostructuresConflict theory How is social inequality maintained and challengedSymbolic Interactionism How do people create meaning when they communicate in microlevel settingsFeminismDurkheimsuicide is an example of functionalismThe whole is greater than the sum of its partsFunctionalism all society works together to create social stabilityStresses that human behaviour us governed by stable patterns of social relationsstructuresShows how social structures can either maintain or undermine social stabilitySociety all works together to creConsequences may be disruptive or dysfunctionalDysfunctional consequences are effects of social structures and create social instabilitySome funcions are manifstWhat are social functions of sportsFitneshealthy populationSocialization competition fair playSocial bondspromotes social stabilityConflict TheorymicroMacrolevel structuresShows inequality produces social stability or social changePrivileged groups maintain advantages while subordinate groups struggle to increase theirsElimination of privilege will lower the level of conflict and increase Karl MarxClass conflict struggle between classes to resistovercome opposition of other classesClass consciousness would lead working class to awareness of their exploitationForm trade unions and labour parties which would end private ownership of property and bring abot a communist societyConflict Theory TodayHow is power and inequality distributed in professional sports leagues Which groups are privileged and which are exploitedMax WeberNoted growth of service sector of economy where workers enjoyed a higher status of income Symbolic Interactionism microFocuses on interpersonal communication in microlevel social settingsEmphasizes social life is possible only because people attach meanings to thingsStresses people help create their social circumstances not merely react to themIncreases our understanding and tolerance of people who may be different from usHelps allow understand other people Verstehen empathetically understanding peoples Mead 18631931 and GoffmanSymbolic Interactionism TodayHow does social interaction in sport impact individual identity Player positions rolesShared social values Feminist Theory class conflict doesnt only matter but gender equality too
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