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2 Positivist perspective pt 1.docx

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Carleton University
SOCI 2445
Darryl Davies

Positivist perspective Positivist perspective - Positivist Perspective has 3 assumptions about what deviance is: SOCIAL STRUCTURE THEORY - Anomie-strain theory, social learning theory, and the control theory Anomie-strain theory perspective (Durkheim) : - The notion that there is a disconnect between the institutional means and social goals – normless or disorganization within society. factors that bring society together • Astate in society where everything is in chaos; a disjunction between the institutional means and cultural goals • When society lacks social norms there is social disorganization and this results in a increase of crime and sense of hopelessness • Crime rises as an alternative means to success of social acceptable tools are unavailable • An anomic person is one who is at high risk of suicide • BARRIER AGAINSTANOMIE IS SOCIAL INTERGRATION!! • Ammonic society identifies different types of suicide:  Altruistic/fatalistic suicide- people sacrifice themselves for the group, gang etc  Egotistic suicide- person take own life- personal decision  Anomic suicide- break down in social organization, the person rejects norm of system and thus commits suicide. Can’t find a sense of identity. (Anomie-strain theory) Robert K Merton - Typology (modes) of adaptation – a way of adapting to society • Typology of adaptation is also seen as ways people adapt/respond to normless societies • Merton’s argument is you are not achieving certain goals you will use these modes of adaptation • We are a driven culture- purpose is to make money and increase wealth, conformity achieves this. • How do you achieve goals in society? – you try to achieve success in acceptable ways - The means and goals are critical – here are his 5 modes of adaptation: 1. Conformity: accept the norms, means and goals – most common - Buy into the notion to succeeded you need to abide by social means and norms 2. Innovation: you accept the goal but not the means (substitute own means) - Thieves, criminals, strippers and get rich quick schemes, etc... 3. Ritualism: accept the means but reject the goals (given up on the goals) - People participate in goal attainment but aren’t interested in success - Work because they have to 4. Retreatists: don’t accept means or goals – least common - Retreats from society - Hobo, panhandler - They tend to withdraw from both 5. Rebellious: change back and forth between accepting and not accepting the goals and means - Usually done at various stages in life - All of us start out as conformists (children) then as we see injustices in the world, may change our minds and adapt to change Deviant Behavior - Occurs at all different levels - When there are deviant acts at the political level we expect the media to cover it for us - Transparency strengthens community confidence in the police - We see deviance even in people who have high status positions - Integration into society and looking at our state and how people live to see if your society is healthy - We can tolerate certain levels of deviance in society because we can’t prevent it all - There are 2 types of deviance: Normal and
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