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3 Positivist perspective pt 2.doc

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SOCI 2445
Darryl Davies

Positivist theories Control theory: Social bond theory & shaming theory Hirschi - He has identified 4 basic values significant of understanding of social bond theory. 4 ways people bond themselves to society 1. Attachment: People attach themselves to the society which they live – and relate that society - Attach themselves to conventional people and institutions - For juveniles, they may show this attachment by loving and respecting their parents, liking school, working hard, etc... 2. Commitment: People comply to the legal system out of consequence of not complying (this innate fear) - They invest their time and energy in conventional types of action, such as getting an education, holding a job, etc... 3. Involvement: Conventional elements in the system – people’s involvement in the things they need to do in their daily life therefore do not have time to do anything they should not. - Involvement in conventional activities - People keep themselves so busy doing conventional things that they don’t have time to partake in deviant activities or even think about deviant acts 4. Belief: Belief that a common value system that everyone shares - Belief in the moral validity of social rules - People have strong moral belief through respect for the police or through a positive attitude towards the law (Social bond theory) John Braithwait - Came up with this notion that society controls us through shaming - Shaming involves an expression of social disapproval to invoke remorse in the wrongdoer - 2 types of shaming: disintegrative and reintegrative - Stigmatic shaming: shame imposed is in the justice system – status alienation (humiliating you)- drives a wedge been the person in court - Restorative Justice: attempt to reconcile damage – Ex: Healing circles of first nations - Disintegrative shaming- wrongdoer is punished in such a way as to be stigmatized, rejected, or ostracized- in effect, banished from conventional society. Same as stigmatization. - Reintegrative shaming- it is more positive and involves making the wrongdoer feel guilty while showing them understanding, forgiveness, or even respect. This is the kind of shaming that affectionate parents administer to their misbehaving children. “Hating the sin, but loving the sinner”. It serves to welcome back the wrongdoer into conventional society Positivist theories 1 - Anomie-strain theory: social strain causes deviance • Merton’s goal-means gap: deviance is prevalent in society because the society encourages people to achieve success without providing equal opportunity for achieving it • Cohen’s status frustration: deviance is prevalent among lower-class youths because they fail to achieve status in a middle-class school environment • Cloward and Ohlin’s differential illegitimate opportunity: lower-class youths are likely to engage in delinquent activities if they have access to illegitimate opportunity • Latest versions of the theory: the American Dream contributes to deviance by directly encouraging the use of illegal means to achieve success, while various social strains cause deviance by producing such emotions as frustration and anger - Social learning theory: deviance is learned through social interactions • Sutherland’s differential association: people are likely to become deviant if they associate with people holding deviant ideas rather than with people holding anti-deviant ideas • Glaser’s differential identification: people are likely to become deviant if they identify themselves more with deviants than with non-deviants • Burgess and Aker’s differential reinforcement: deviants are likely to continue engaging in deviant activities if they have been rewarded rather than punished for their p
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