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SOCI2445 Full Notes for the Entire Year

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 2445
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
SOCI2445THSOCI2445A FINAL EXAMTHURSDAY DECEMBER 127PMWhat is deviant behaviour and how do we define itWhy do people engage in deviant behaviourWhy do certain people with certain attributes appear more frequently in the official data of devianceWhy do people assume a deviant identity Deviance as1 Demonological explanation supernatural force ex witchcraft is used as explanation2 Physiological explanation physical defects is used as explanation ex Lombroso 3 Pathological behaviour disease is used as explanation4 Relativistic behaviour rule breaking s is used as explanation5 Dangerous behaviour used to explain real criminals ConclusionNo real definition of deviance positive vs negativeDeviance as any behaviour considered deviant by public consensus which may range from the maximum to the minimum Sociological approaches to deviancePositivism behaviour based on scienceabsolutism deviance is absolutely real thus it can be studiedobservable phenomenon deviance can be observed as an objectdeterminism behaviour is product of causation external factors affecting the individual thus beyond individuals controlcharacteristics that distinguishes it from social norms person is studied as an object lack of free will Constructionism humanistdeviance is socially constructedrelativism imposing a label onto deviant behaviour not intrinsic characteristics but societal characteristicssubjectivism examine deviance from an emotional perspectivetheir point of viewvolunteerism deviance is volountary and expression of free willdeviance is not real in and of itself but just a label empathy is vital to examination self willed not robotsSocial responses to deviant behaviour will vary over timeoEx smoking in an officenever used to be deviantDepends on who commits the act and who feels theyve been harmed by it ie biases prejudices social classDeviance as a clarification of social rules when someone challenges rules there often are informal or formal consequencesoIf rules are not adequate individuals will challenge themoChallenging clarifies or even changes rulesDeviance provides a safety valve allows people to relieve steamoEx way people act at sporting events through aggressionDeviance relieves tensionDeviance promotes boundary maintenance and helps integrate society learn through others deviant actsDeviance as scapegoating punishment of the deviant as an example to othersDeviance raises the value of conformityDeviance as an early warning system tells you that there is something wrong with behaviour All criminal offences are deviantNot all deviant acts are criminalCrime as a violation of a formal normMany more deviant behaviours than criminal offences Theoretical Categories of Deviance by Becker1 Conformist deviant if 2 out of 10 people follow the law in order to conform theyre technically being deviant2 Falsely accused deviant individual who is targeted for having been alleged of doing something deviant3 Secret deviant deviance in low visibility ex vandalism4 Pure deviantface value deviant When is the law enforcedLaw enforcement as an enterprising act someone needs to make the decision of bringing the issue to justiceThose who want the enforcement to occur bring the attention to the othersWhistle blowing when a little bird informs the law of deviantcriminal behaviourDepends on how difficult the situation isWhat would stop an officer from enforcing the law need a warrant to enter private property discretion as to whether something is actually a criminal matter etcRule enforcer police officer video camerasRule creator legislation passed by politiciansTechniques of neutralizationMatzaSeries of rationalizations take the form of denialsAttempt to rationalize ones involvement in a crimeAttempt to lessen ones guilt and responsibility for deviant behaviour one is involved inDenial of injury condemning the condemner denial of victimTheories of Deviance PositivismAnomieStrain Theories1Durkheim crime is normal but when it exceeds the normative boundaries and social controls cannot control it anymore it becomes pathological like disease 1 Merton GoalMeans Gap2Society encourages deviant activities3Cultural goal society is overwhelmed by having to be successful no matter what4Institutional means unequal means due to social classes leads the lower classes to depend on illegitimate means therefore pressuring them to engage in deviant activities5There is an overemphasis on the success goal and an under emphasis on the use of legitimate means6Typologymode of adaptation
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