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SOCI2445A_Sociology of Deviance_Dale Spencer_Fall 2010( Entire Class Notes, Very Useful)

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SOCI 2445
Dale Spencer

Lecture 1 3 characteristics of Deviance 1 Universal phenomenon Exists everywhere 2 Relative phenomenonOnce wrong no longer deviant vice versa o Eg Gay marriage cannibalism 3 Situational phenomenonObservers judgment2 core issues 1 Actual behavior of deviant people 2 Rulesstandards that defines devianceEtiology causation of CrimethPreScientific pre 17 C Approaches to DevianceMyths and Deviance o Spread of monotheistic religions that spark superstitions of deviance o Mythical tales of offences against powers of creationIf someone offends god bad things will happen to themThe Trickster o Doesnt consider anything unconditionally bad o Disrespectful figure o Challenges and brings down the social orderThe Demonic Perspective o Deviance was caused by forces in the supernatural realmo The IV were demons devils who acted through particular humans to cause onto the world o Disasters were attributed to the supernatural not natureo Demonic possession attributed with mental illness and disfiguration The Witch Hunts o Deviant people can be created by authoritytho Roman Catholic inquisition11 Co Heresy or anything out of the ordinarytho Spanish inquisition15 C Directed towards Muslims Jews and Protestants in Europe o Ordeal by Fire Feet repeatedly forced against coalso Strappado Wrists tied behind your back and hoisted into the air and repeatedly dropped o Execution hanging burning drowningtho Ended in the 18 CModern Witch Hunts o In the Criminal Code it is an offence to practice witchcraftththClassical Approaches to Deviance 17early 18 CDeviance as a behaviour that detracted from the well being of societySwiftness and response to the forms of deviance that would sway people away from deviance in the future and encourage conformityThe Enlightenment o Strictly empirical view of the world o Those deviant made selfserving choices o Basic tenantsPeople are hedonistic seek pleasure and avoid harmPeople have free willSociety represents the form of social contract whereby each person gives up hisher right to hedonistic pleasure to participate in social order and security Punishment levies a form of pain against the form of pleasure that you would receive in doing the criminal act This would achieve the greatest good for the greatest amount of people in society utilitarianism o Deviance is a violation of the social contractThe Philosophes o Used material provided by scientistso Made attacks on churches inconsistencies and abuses of the social order o Any law that went beyond what is necessary to uphold the social order is oppressive and wrongTwo Major Thinkers o Cesare Beccaria Disturbed by a prison tour and wrote a book to document his experience Six Principles found in On Crimes and Punishment o All people are motivated by pain and pleasure o Greatest happiness for the greatest number o Necessity of the Social ContractEach gives up hedonistic pleasure to benefit whole o Social Contact is supported by laws openly made by legislatureClearly known and easily understoodo Crime as an injury to society o Punishment as prevention Acts as a warning Execution was never justifiable Punishment makes people not want to commit crimeso Jeremy BenthamFelicific CalculusThe value of the punishment should not be less than what is sufficient to outweigh that of the profit gained by the offenceThe more serious the offence the more time and money should be invested to make sure it is punished enoughThe punishment for the various offences should be set in such a way that if a person decided to commit an offence he or she would be induced to choose the less serious oneIf an offence has several aspects the punishment should be set to discourage all parts of it not just the most serious part o Ex if you commit a break and enter and theft the punishment should address the entire crime not just the theft aspectThe punishment should never be more than what is necessary to outweigh the value of the offence to the offender Since punishment involves pain and is therefore intrinsically evil it should only be used to exclude some greater evil
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