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SOCI2450 Full Notes for the Entire Year

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SOCI 2450
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SOCI2450CRIM FINAL EXAM NOTESLECTURE 1Criminology1 Sociology of law attempt at systematic analysis of the conditions under which crime and laws develop2 Criminal etiology attempt at scientific analysis of the causes of crime3 Penology concern with the control of crime Sutherlands definitionThe making of law the breaking of law and the societal reaction to the breaking of law Epidemiology frequency of which crime occurs Criminal behaviourBehaviour that violates Criminal Code of CanadaCriminal law is defined as a body of specific rules regarding human conduct which have been promulgated by politicians which apply uniformly to all members of the classesto which the laws refer and which are enforced by punishment administered by the stateCriminal law has 4 specific characteristicsoPoliticality laws must be passed by legislative bodiesuniversal and essential element of the lawoSpecificity criminal law is very specificdefines offences and penalties associated to itoUniformity everyone is equal before the lawoPenal sanctionviolators will beheld accountable and punished Sources of Criminal LawSubstantive criminal law all offences and penalties in Criminal CodeProcedural criminal law all protections built into system to protect individuals of unjust treatment of the stateLECTURE 2ON EXAMJerome Hall General Principles of the Criminal LawIn an ideal world behaviour would not be criminal unless the following conditions were met1 Must be external consequences or harm2 Harm must be prohibited under the criminal law3 Must be intentional reckless action or inaction4 Must be mens rea ie intent5 Must be fusion between actus reus and mens rea6 Must be direct relationship between harm and behaviour7 No such thing as crime without sanction Classical Theory1When a wrong occurs people gather together and attempt to get justice2First victim had to announce intention to seek justicevengeance3Second victim had to secure the consent of the group4Thirdly limitations are placed on a harm that can be inflicted onto accused and b time and place5Once act occurred public investigation is lead and sometimes members of consenting group would participate Criminal Law Originated in Rational Processes of a Unified Society6After a crime is committed understood one had to go to court to seek justice7Rational theory with formal limitations Criminal Law Originated in a Crystallization of the Moores8Mooresbeliefs and customs9Customs transform into criminal law over time Criminal Law Originated in a Conflict of Different Interest Groups10Dominant groups pass the law11When interest groups challenge the federal government Conservative Federal GovernmentTough on crime12Mandatory minimums13More prisons14Court fine surcharges15Based on ideologies and not empirical evidence16Assumes crime is increasing HOWEVER its decreasing Empirical Standard Policy17Empirical research demonstrating effectiveness18Sets high requirements for research design19Replication20Conduct metaanalysis systematic review of all studies ever conducted in specific area Wolfgang21Delinquency in a Birth Cohort study22Sample all males born in Philadelphia between 1945196323Method traced careers into their 18th birthday24Results small percentage of delinquents 8 were responsible for a large percentage of crimes25FindingsoPrevalence of delinquency especially in regards to malesoPercentage considered to be career criminalsoMost delinquents cease to act criminally at some point in life and usually relatively early
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