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extra notes.doc

14 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 2450
Professor
all

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1 Sociological Perspectives of Crime11 Social Structure PerspectiveSocialStructurePerspectivewherecrimeisaresultofanindividualslocationwithinthestructureofsocietyafocusongroupThisapproachfocusesonthesocialandeconomicconditionsoflifeThisincludesrelativedeprivationdifferentialopportunitydiscriminationsocialdisorganizationpersonalfrustrationalternativemeanstosuccessandsubculturalvaluesthatconflictwithconventionalvaluesThereare3socialstructuretheoriesESC1EcologicalPerspectiveChicagoSchoolthistheoryencompassesthegeographicdemographiclocationsdelinquencyareasandconcentriccirclesaCriminalZonesthereismorecrimeinthecoreofthecityZone1businessesZone2residentialandbusinessesZone3workingclasshomesZone4middleclasscitizenssuburbsZone5mostlysuburbsbCriminologyofPlaceemphasizestheimportanceofgeographiclocationandarchitecturalfeaturesastheyareassociatedwithcrimecBrokenWindowsTheorypeoplewillbemorelikelytocommitcrimesinneighbourhoodswherelawsarenotheavilyenforceddDefenceableSpacewhereyoutakeproactiveactionsinyourneighbourhoodtodefendyourneighbourhoodsymbolicbarrierstoprotectyourpropertyegfencesguarddogsiemakingyourpropertysafe2StrainTheorywheresocietyencourageseveryonetoachievethesamegoalswithoutgivingthemequalopportunitiestoachievethemThediscrepancybetweenwhatsocietyasksforandwhatthestructureofoursocietypermitsiswhatcausescrimeThereare5waysofadaptingtostrainCIRRRAdaptatioMeans OpportunityGoalsExamplenConformiRegular people middlehigh class AcceptAcceptstsocietyInnovatorRejectAcceptCriminalsRitualistAcceptRejectLowincome familiesRetreatistRejectRejectDrug addictsAccepts new rejects Accepts new rejects RebelAnarchistsoldoldMertonsDifferentialOpportunitywherepeoplearemorelikelytoengageincriminalbehaviouronlyiftheyhaveaccesstoillegitimateopportunitiesversuslegitimateopportunities2CultureConflictTheorySellintherearetwotypesofconflictsPrimaryConflictaclashofculturesoccursinsocietySecondaryConflictwhenthoseclashesoccurthemiddleclassdefineswhatisandisnotcriminal12 Social Process PerspectiveSocialProcessesPerspectiveaninteractionistperspectiveieinteractionswithothersthatplacesprimaryemphasisontheroleofcommunicationandsocializationThereare4theoriesSociallearninglabellingsocialcontrolandsocialdevelopmenttheory1SocialLearningTheoryaDifferentialAssociationSutherlandpeoplearelikelytobecomedeviantiftheyassociatemorewithpeoplewhoholddeviantideasThereare9principlesofcriminalbehaviouritslearneditslearnedwithothersitslearnedinintimatepersonalgroupstechniquesofcrimearelearnedyouwillcommitacodebasedonwhetheryourespectthelegalcodeandtheprocessoflearningbyassociatingwithcriminalsisthesameasanyotherlearningApersonbecomescriminalbecauseofanexcessofdefinitionsthatarefavourabletoviolationsofthelawoverdefinitionsunfavourabletothelawDifferentialassociationmayvaryinfrequencydurationpriorityandintensityWhilecriminalbehaviourisanexpressionofgenericneedsandvaluesitsnotexplainedbythesesincenoncriminalsbehaviourisalsoanexpressionofthosesameneedsandvaluesbTechniquesofNeutralizationtechniquesthatrationalizewhyyoucommitcrimesAC3DAppealtoHigherAuthoritiesdefendingourselvesagainstanoverzealousstateordefendingyoufamilyhonourCondemningtheCondemnersblamingthepeoplecreatingthelawsDenialofResponsibilityusingpovertyabuselackofopportunityexternalfactorsasreasonsDenialofInjuryclaimingtheydidntintendtocauseharmDenialoftheVictimclaimingthatthepersondeservedit2LabellingTheoryaTannenbaumtwofacets
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