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SOCI 2450
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SOCI 2450Criminology an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behaviourIdeology the body of doctrine myth belief etc that guides the criminal justice system Such a body of doctrine myth etc with reference to some political and social plan as that of fascism along with the devices for putting it into operation Criminal law body of law that regulates actions that have the potential to harm interests of the stateThere are three essential characteristics of criminal law1 Politicality enforced by political authorities2 Specificity specific rules regarding human conduct3 Uniformity rules apply to everyone equallyFerri wrote a book first to talk about criminal statisticsMoved from punishing to rehabilitatingTwo schools of thought positivist and classicalPositivist the application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminalsfocused on offendersaw their behaviour as influenced by innate constitution and immediate environment punishment must be strictly related to the offendersaw sentences as a measure of crime preventioninsisted on the idea of penalties to the individual criminaladvocated attempts at rehabilitationbelieved that the thought of future crimes an offender may commit should come into play during sentencingClassicala criminological perspective that held that women and men are rational beings that crime is the result of the exercise of free will and that punishment can be effective in reducing the incidence of crimesaw offender as rational and having free will to choosepunishment must be strictly related to the crimesaw sentences as proportionate to the crime already committedrejected the idea of penalties to the individual criminalruled out any ideas or attempts at rehabilitationthe future crimes an offender may commit arent thought about during sentencingThese two schools of thought basically argue about punishment or reformation as the ideal way to deal with criminalsConservativesclassistvery moralisticonly you are responsible for your actions and failure no matter whatget tough on crime even when crime rates are down war on crimelooks at discipline and self controlbelieve incarceration is the answerdont base their programs on empirical dataemphasizes the rules of criminal lawLiberalscrime is based upon social conditions people are subjected toapproach crime using the causes of crimebelieve people can be rehabilitatedadvocate lots of crime preventionemphasizes the rules of criminal procedureinterested in evidenceThe Liberals and the Conservatives disagree on what should or should not doEvidencebased crime policy policy that is based on empirical evidence of scientific researchWhat is the evidenceDoes the evidence support that the policy worksHas the research been done to the highest standardsHave the findings been replicatedElements of evidencebased crime policy1 Demands evidence of the result and effectiveness of the policy2 Sets a high requirement of experimental or quasiexperimental research designs especially using methodology of randomization 3 Sets a requirement of replication confirmed by several similar studiesDeterrence TheorySpecific deterrence specific to one person to prevent them from committing crimeGeneral deterrence punishing one person to set an exampleTraditional crackdowns are unfocusedDisplacement effect forcing criminals to commit their crimes elsewhereIf you focus on repeat offenders you are more likely to make a dent in crime than dispersing numerous officers to random areasTo reduce crime police must team up with community and government agenciesThere are four assumptions of the deterrence theory1 Potential offenders have to be aware of a penalty for a particular crime2 Potential offenders have to perceive the consequence of lawbreaking to be unpleasant and thus something to avoid3 Potential offenders have to believe the risk of arrest and conviction and punishment present
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