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SOCI2450B_Sociology Criminology_Leslie-Anne Keown_Winter 2011( Entire Class Notes, Very Useful)

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SOCI 2450
Leslie- Anne Keown

Criminology Lecture 1 Criminology Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon It includesthe processes of making laws of breaking laws and of reacting to the breaking of laws the objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and verified principles and other types of knowledge regarding this process of law crime and treatment Sutherland and Cressey 1960 Studies criminal behaviourIts definition causes patterns and controlUses methods of established social scienceRecords experiments surveys historical data content analysisIs interdisciplinarySociology criminal justice psychology political science anthropology economics the natural sciencesNeed rules and laws that can be brokenCriminal JusticeStudy involves describing analyzing and explaining the agencies of justicePoliceCourtsCorrections DevianceDeviant behaviourViolates social normsIs subject to social controlNot all crime is devianteg Marijuana useNot all deviance is criminaleg Bystander apathy John Hagans Typology of Deviance 3 interacting variables Evaluation of harmVery harmful somewhat harmful not very harmfulAgreement about the normStrong agreement strong disagreement confusion or apathySeverity of societal responseVery severe moderate mildThe higher on the scalemore extreme Types of Crime and Deviance Consensus crimes Social deviations Consensus crimesSocial deviationsmurder rape robbery alcoholism bisexuality murder rape robberyalcoholism bisexualityConflict crimes Social diversions Conflict crimesSocial diversionspornography prostitution drugs body piercingpornography prostitution drugsbody piercingcrossdressing crossdressingCrime vs CriminologyCrimeexplains originextent and nature of crime in societyCriminology describes and analyzes work of police courts and corrections works on methods for crime controlThese two work to help each other Issues of Interest to CriminologistsHow do deviant behaviours become crimesHistorical development of laweg Criminalization of marijuana in 1923When should acts considered crimes be legalizedReduction of penalties but not legalizing itDecriminalization and legalizationeg Decriminalization of homosexuality in 1969Research R v Sharpe 2001pornography A Brief History of Criminology Middle Ages Prior to 1700 ADDeviance was attributed to supernatural forcesChanged across the worldEmphasis was on witchcraft and demonic possessionDevil made them do itEspecially murderResponse was based on status of perpetratorMuch use of torture and death penaltyEg burning at the state Classical Criminology 1750 to 1900Balancing of crimes and punishment fairly o UtilitarianGot rid of ideas such as possession and demons because all crime has meaning Cesare Beccaria 17381794On Crimes and Punishments Describes why people commit crimes and methods for controlUtilitarianismCost benefit analysis pros and consPeople have free willCrime pays better than noncriminal behaviourFear of punishment deters crimeSevere certain and swift punishments workLet the punishment fit the crime Capital punishment still allowed but for more severe crimesPositivism Began 1850sBiology astronomy and chemistryAuguste Comte 17981857Father of sociologyPromoted positivismSocieties pass through stages that can be grouped on the basis of how people understand the worldPositivismBehaviour is controlled by internal and external forcesScience can be used to study human behaviourInfluenced by Charles DarwinSurvival of the fittestCesare LombrosoFather of criminology 18351909Studied the brains of criminals that had been euthanized Criminal anthropology studied the born criminalCant help themselves Inherited criminal traits cause crimeAtavistic anomalies expressed in physical traitsHavent evolved enoughDegenerate family provides indirect criminal heredity Sociological Criminology anomiestudy crimerelated factors age sex climate povertywomen kill their babies more in the wintercant take them for a walk they get grumpy more frustration Durkheim 18581917Crime is natural and inevitable All society has crime because all societies have norms therefore someone will break them or go against them
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