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Midterm

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Carleton University

Sociology

SOCI 3000

all

Fall

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Chapter 1DefinitionsStatistics A set of mathematical techniques for organizing and analyzing dataVariable Any trait that can change values from case to case ex gender and or ethnicitySample A subset of a population In Inferential statistics information is gathered from random or EPSEM samples and then generalized to populationsPopulation The total collection of all cases in which the researcher is interestedDescriptive statistics The branch of statistics concerned with 1 summarizing the distribution of a single variable or 2 measuring the relationship between two or more variablesInferential statistics The branch of statistics concerned with making generalizations from sample to populationsLevel of Measurement The mathematical characteristics of a variable as determined by the measurement process A major criterion for selecting statistical techniquesNominal Variables Scores are labels only they are not numbersOrdinal Variable Scores have some numerical value and can be rankedInterval Ratio Variable Scores are numbersQ Why is the level of measurement of a variable important in data analysisThe level of measurement is important because each level of measurement contains different types of information and therefore determines what types of statistical analysis you can use Q What are the differences between a ordinal variable and an interval variableAn ordinal variable is a variable that may or may not have a numerical value but is represented by rankAn interval variable has a numerical value and the values have equal intervals between themChapter 2Frequency Distribution A table that displays the number of cases in each category of a variableCumulative Frequency A column in a frequency distribution that displays the number of cases in an interval and all preceding intervalsCumulative Percentage A column in a frequency distribution that displays the number of cases in an interval and all preceding intervalsProportions The number of cases in a category divided by the number of cases in all categoriesPercentage The number of cases in a category divided by the number of cases in all categoriesRates The number of actual occurances divided by the number of possible occurences per some unit of timeRatio The number of cases in one category divided by the number of cases in another category1How to calculate the ratio rate proportion and percentageRatio A Ratio compares the relative sizes of categories that is partto part

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