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Sociology exam review

6 Pages

Course Code
SOCI 3410
Darryl Davies

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Sociology: Policing Exam Review Lecture 1 Five pillars of Policing: - Crime Prevention - Law enforcement – use of force – vital to ensure that they can conduct their duties according to the letter of the law. - Public order maintained – parades, political protests, crowd control, - Emergency response - Assistance to victims of the crime o 75-80% deals with law enforcement related functions – communications, o Not their job to create violence it’s to prevent it – communication is key o Role of Police depends on the oath they took - Police do not make the law – they are supposed to enforce it – they should have no say in who is guilt or innocence – it’s not their role - Collect evidence to support prosecution of the crown - Know the boundaries for enforcing the law – cases have gotten thrown out because the police don’t know the basic rights and freedoms of the charter of rights have freedoms - Rodney king Case (Police Racism/ Police brutality) - No law that prohibits you from taking photographs in a public venue as long as you are not in the way Lecture 2 - Police State: a country occupied by a militia which controls the populations actions, the rights of the public are taken away - To join a force you must get through a security clearance, psychological testing, isolate the individual - 4 Sources: 1. young police officers are part of a socialization process, routine of police work (you do what your colleagues tell you to do) 2. Police subculture, they usual just form friendships with other officers 3. It may be taken form an anomie - Policy changes: High standards of admission, a special body of knowledge and theory, altruism and dedication to the service ideal, a lengthy period of training for candidates, a code of ethics, licensing of members (take an oath to become an officer, oath of office is to the people and rule of law), autonomies control, pride within the members, publicly recognized status - Emile Durkheim, distinguishes between organic and mechanical solidarity in the social system, primitive and less complex society work are bound together on mechanical ideas bound together while more advanced work generate a different type of mechanical solidarity served through the labour force (Repressive laws) (Restitotive laws, professional model) - Jerome Skolick ,in his book Justice without Trial, talks about certain elements included in the police environment, (danger, authority and should be enforced efficiently). The relationship between police and public isn’t really there. The element of danger isolates the officer for society. Defiling assailant - 2 Types of cynicism: one is directed to the police force itself, against the world and people in general (This may be a division of anomie, continuum of 6 steps where you start out with a commitment ) A study of a police use of force SIU; 5 things that add to a violent police culture, - Militaristic, the notion of a war on crime and every individual is a suspect (us v. them) - War Stories, predicts minority as a threat - Emphasis on toughness, courage, and respect - The contempt of cop syndrome, people basically defy the police - Code of silence, police will lie even in court to keep any officer safe Lecture 3 Constraints on enforcing discretion: o Police are technically prohibited to use certain methods to collect evidence o Institution of Privacy – some people have more protection than others – because financially not everyone can challenge when their rights have been infringed up o Police are embedded in networks with other organizations – work with mental health agencies – cannot take action in certain areas o Police are constrained by interpretational issues – subjected to interpretation, give rise to ambiguity, o Police are constrained in their work by ideological and ___ discretion – everyone has their own beliefs and moral standards, o Police like other employees have occupational worries- can be held responsible for criminal charges – always to some extent looking over their shoulder because they never know when a complaint can be made against them Determinants of discretion – make a point to know about the difference between the two - Differencing between law enforcement and order maintenance - Law enforcement – involves a violation of the law and an assessment of guilt or innocence - Order maintenance – may entail a legal infraction but it involves an additional dispute in which the law must be interpreted and blame assigned, involves people in conflict, a party at 2 in the morning, or people in a parking lot fighting, etc… - Of those two concepts there are two major catalyst that can make these thins happen  Being police invoked - police enforce the law  Law enforcement: police take it upon themselves to stop someone, was on his own perception/discretion o Police have absolute discretion o On the other hand they have their hands tied….?  Order Maintenance: intervene in situations in actual or potential disorder – they come upon someone who’s drunk, someone’s yelling at someone else o Police have absolute discretion about how they’re going to proceed o They are the ones who are going to invoke the law – lay a charge  Citizen invoked – the citizen is the one that wants someone to respond or wants the order  Law enforcement: the citizen is upset, they call the police because they want something done – few of these result in an arrest  Order Maintenance: a private disorder, for example between a husband and wife, where the citizen calls the police - In case 1 –Police invoked Law enforcement - the police can enforce the law but hat can be ___ (police have greatest amount of discretion) - Case 2 – citizen invoked law enforcement – the police have the least discretion (except in juvenile cases) - Case 3: Police Order Maintenance - an intermediate step - Case 4 – Citizen Order Maintenance - you’re responding to a fight or an altercation James Q Wilson styles of policing: - The watchman style: in this model of policing, police not only emphasis order maintenance over law enforcement but they judge the seriousness of the situation less by what the law says and more by what the consequences of others - Legalistic style: the strict letter of the law approach, order maintenance is the most important, has a quota system, pro law enforcement over order maintenance - Service style: is where the police take all the request for law enforcement and order maintenance seriously by they are less like to make an arrest or lay charges, not left at the discretion of the officer, it is a style that is adopted by the province or the city Youth Offenders o 5 options that the officers have when dealing with YOs DISPOSITIONAL DISICION MAKING BY POLIENCE WITH RESPECT TO ENCOUNTERS WITH JUVINILES  Out right release  Submission of a field interrogation report (field checks)  Charged with nothing  Witnessed a crime  Official reprimand – given to official guardians  Citation to juvenile court  Arrest and confinement o Dispositional Criteria – illustrates discretion and abuse o Is not always the infraction that is committed that results in some sort of appropriate disposition with the police. o Not the offence criteria that determines whether a charge is laid or …. By the police o Cooperative youth were charged FAR less often and were given a far more chance of not being arrested  Most important factor is the youths demeanor o Place more emphasis on dispositional criteria than offence seriousness Lecture 4 - Shapes relationships within the police force, and “it is an unwritten law in the police force that they would never testify
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