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soci 3410 Potential Questions exam questions.docx

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SOCI 3410
Darryl Davies

Potential Questions exam questions 1) What are the two methods of wrongful doing? a.) Professional and beurocratic wrongdoing - Targeting practices of the police - Suppression of evidence (exculpatory evidence which doesn’t point finger at person) - Coercion of witnesses/ intimidation - Falsified forensic evidence - Judicial malpractice - Jury tampering - Prosecution and defense errors b.) Systemic social inequality - Justice system focuses on marginalized groups who are powerless to defend themselves (easily victimized) - High status offenders are protected - Lower class, bail less often – harder to prove innocence *** The law must apply equally to everyone 2.) According to Loftus, what are the 3 stages of eyewitness testimony? a.) Acquisition- Perception of original event, info coded in memory system b.) Retention – Period of time passing between events and when individual has to recall it c.) Retrieval- Phase during which an individual brings back conscious and tell what they have seen (Colors and shapes of objects influence) violent vs non violent stress and the ability to recall events 3.) According to Kassin, What are the 3 types of false confessions? – Relate to cases from class. a.) Voluntary false confession - Made by person who seeks notoriety - Want to be in limelight b.) Coerced – compliant false confession - Individual pleads guilty – provide confession to end the interrogation process they go through - Give police what they want c.) Coerced- internalized false confession - Individual starts to believe they did the crime (may have blacked out) - Interrogations techniques to get people to confess to crimes 4.) What are the major factors which impact eyewitness testimony? a.) Psychological factors - Emotional - disturbed emotional state of victim or bystanders (trauma, may worsen) - Difficulty of retaining and retrieving info stored in memory during stressful situations b.) Systemic factors – Functions of criminal justice system - Mug shots - Other factors distorting memories and clouding judgment - Line-up identification – usually after judgment had been made already (bias) - Composite drawings from fragmented descriptions (look like people) - Photo identification – suggestion cues to the person and the methods hamper rather than assist c.) Social and cultural factors - Bias, mistakes and judgments from societal and cultural expectations that ppl have - False identifications = more common when identifying members of the opposite race (Brigham) - Further increased if the person is highly prejudice - The rate of false identification reduced with experience with other races - What people want to see, impact perception - Stereotypes - Expectations from past experiences and how you see things 5.) Why do people falsely confess to a crime they did not commit? a.) Plea bargain – deal with crown (plead guilty to reduce prison time) b.) Strong eyewitness testimony (eyewitness testimony influenced by reward) c.) Circumstantial evidence d.) Probability of conviction based on the circumstantial evidence e.) No alternatives than to bargain with crown f.) Legal pressure to plea bargain (may be no way to win) g.) Defense lawyer benefits - $$ for cases, more cases h.) Crown wants to do as many cases as possible - Plea bargaining is cheap and efficient (plays a major role in decision making) 6.) What is beneficial about a change of venue in a case to ensure a fair trial? a.) Scope and source of publicity – media attention, public seeing person as bad and not be able to view them as innocent (stigma) b.) Nature and gravity of offense – If serious and read about it, might be influenced by it (Panel of jury and community size) - small community may know offender and form opinion c.) Defendant’s status in the community d.) Popularity and prominence of victim e.) Inconvenience and administration of justice – security f.) Likelihood of a fair trial (better somewhere else) – jury 7.) According to MacFarlane, what are the predisposing categories of wrongful convictions? a.) Public pressure to convict in sensationalized ca
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