SOCI 3410 Study Guide - Final Guide: Police Brutality, Juvenile Court, Mechanical And Organic Solidarity

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
Carleton University
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 3410
Professor
Sociology: Policing Exam Review
Lecture 1
Five pillars of Policing:
- Crime Prevention
- Law enforcement use of force vital to ensure that they can conduct their duties according to
the letter of the law.
- Public order maintained parades, political protests, crowd control,
- Emergency response
- Assistance to victims of the crime
o 75-80% deals with law enforcement related functions communications,
o Not their job to create violence it’s to prevent it – communication is key
o Role of Police depends on the oath they took
- Police do not make the law they are supposed to enforce it they should have no say in who is
guilt or innocence it’s not their role
- Collect evidence to support prosecution of the crown
- Know the boundaries for enforcing the law cases have gotten thrown out because the police
don’t know the basic rights and freedoms of the charter of rights have freedoms
- Rodney king Case (Police Racism/ Police brutality)
- No law that prohibits you from taking photographs in a public venue as long as you are not in the
way
Lecture 2
- Police State: a country occupied by a militia which controls the populations actions, the rights of
the public are taken away
- To join a force you must get through a security clearance, psychological testing, isolate the
individual
- 4 Sources: 1. young police officers are part of a socialization process, routine of police work (you
do what your colleagues tell you to do) 2. Police subculture, they usual just form friendships with
other officers 3. It may be taken form an anomie
- Policy changes: High standards of admission, a special body of knowledge and theory, altruism
and dedication to the service ideal, a lengthy period of training for candidates, a code of ethics,
licensing of members (take an oath to become an officer, oath of office is to the people and rule
of law), autonomies control, pride within the members, publicly recognized status
- Emile Durkheim, distinguishes between organic and mechanical solidarity in the social system,
primitive and less complex society work are bound together on mechanical ideas bound together
while more advanced work generate a different type of mechanical solidarity served through the
labour force (Repressive laws) (Restitotive laws, professional model)
- Jerome Skolick ,in his book Justice without Trial, talks about certain elements included in the
police environment, (danger, authority and should be enforced efficiently). The relationship
between police and public isn’t really there. The element of danger isolates the officer for society.
Defiling assailant
- 2 Types of cynicism: one is directed to the police force itself, against the world and people in
general (This may be a division of anomie, continuum of 6 steps where you start out with a
commitment )
A study of a police use of force SIU; 5 things that add to a violent police culture,
- Militaristic, the notion of a war on crime and every individual is a suspect (us v. them)
- War Stories, predicts minority as a threat
- Emphasis on toughness, courage, and respect
- The contempt of cop syndrome, people basically defy the police
- Code of silence, police will lie even in court to keep any officer safe
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Lecture 3
Constraints on enforcing discretion:
o Police are technically prohibited to use certain methods to collect evidence
o Institution of Privacy some people have more protection than others because
financially not everyone can challenge when their rights have been infringed up
o Police are embedded in networks with other organizations work with mental health
agencies cannot take action in certain areas
o Police are constrained by interpretational issues subjected to interpretation, give rise to
ambiguity,
o Police are constrained in their work by ideological and ___ discretion everyone has
their own beliefs and moral standards,
o Police like other employees have occupational worries- can be held responsible for
criminal charges always to some extent looking over their shoulder because they never
know when a complaint can be made against them
Determinants of discretion make a point to know about the difference between the two
- Differencing between law enforcement and order maintenance
- Law enforcement involves a violation of the law and an assessment of guilt or
innocence
- Order maintenance may entail a legal infraction but it involves an additional dispute in
which the law must be interpreted and blame assigned, involves people in conflict, a
party at 2 in the morning, or people in a parking lot fighting, etc…
- Of those two concepts there are two major catalyst that can make these thins happen
Being police invoked - police enforce the law
Law enforcement: police take it upon themselves to stop someone, was
on his own perception/discretion
o Police have absolute discretion
o On the other hand they have their hands tied….?
Order Maintenance: intervene in situations in actual or potential disorder
they come upon someone who’s drunk, someone’s yelling at someone
else
o Police have absolute discretion about how they’re going to
proceed
o They are the ones who are going to invoke the law lay a charge
Citizen invoked the citizen is the one that wants someone to respond or wants
the order
Law enforcement: the citizen is upset, they call the police because they
want something done few of these result in an arrest
Order Maintenance: a private disorder, for example between a husband
and wife, where the citizen calls the police
- In case 1 Police invoked Law enforcement - the police can enforce the law but hat can be ___
(police have greatest amount of discretion)
- Case 2 citizen invoked law enforcement the police have the least discretion (except in juvenile
cases)
- Case 3: Police Order Maintenance - an intermediate step
- Case 4 Citizen Order Maintenance - you’re responding to a fight or an altercation
James Q Wilson styles of policing:
- The watchman style: in this model of policing, police not only emphasis order maintenance over
law enforcement but they judge the seriousness of the situation less by what the law says and
more by what the consequences of others
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Document Summary

Law enforcement use of force vital to ensure that they can conduct their duties according to the letter of the law. Public order maintained parades, political protests, crowd control, Police do not make the law they are supposed to enforce it they should have no say in who is guilt or innocence it"s not their role. Collect evidence to support prosecution of the crown. Know the boundaries for enforcing the law cases have gotten thrown out because the police don"t know the basic rights and freedoms of the charter of rights have freedoms. Rodney king case (police racism/ police brutality) No law that prohibits you from taking photographs in a public venue as long as you are not in the way. Police state: a country occupied by a militia which controls the populations actions, the rights of the public are taken away. To join a force you must get through a security clearance, psychological testing, isolate the individual.

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