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WGST 2812- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 26 pages long!)


Department
Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
WGST 2812
Professor
Anuppiriya Sriskandarajah
Study Guide
Final

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Carleton
WGST 2812
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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Gender: culturally constructed roles assigned to male or females and these vary considerably from
society to society
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Sex: the physical characteristics that distinguish males from females ( Chromosomes, organs, body
shape, body hair etc..)
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Cis-gender: when the personal identity corresponds with the birth sex
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Transgender: personal identity does not correspond with birth sex
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Understanding gender as a lived process rather than a consequence of your sex
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Gender is a set of relations configured through bodies, spatial, discursive and material processes
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Gender is contextual
Interpret relationship between gender and power
Gender is institutionally organized
Discursively constituted
By examining gender as a practice we are able to see:
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Originally, factory jobs were men's jobs, but when WW2 happened factory work became
women's work
Gender changes through history
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Gender as Practice
Since youth can't create anything, they cannot create their own gender identity and consume
whatever they can get their parents to buy them
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Purchasing practices define gender
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Laws, edia, fail, frieds, soiet, epetatios et…
There are other forces that make people choice their gender
Gender is ultimately a choice, but it is not a "free" choice.
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Gender is a practice does not mean it is simply a matter of choice
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Gender as practice means gender is a negotiation
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Gender occurs within a matrix of social and historical forces enshrined in ideological arenas of law,
religion, family, schooling, media, work etc..
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Socio-economic changes brought on by industrialization, mass education, legislation regulating
child labour in 19th century and early 20th century in the west created conditions where children
and youth are separated from adults
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Before children used to work alongside adults but with them moving out of factories and into
schools they are spending more time away from adults and more time with children their own age
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Over the last few decades children and childhood studies became a recognized area of study
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Childhood is viewed as a period of innocence
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Childhood and youth hood are seen as different
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Youth start to act out or are seen as difficult or even out of control
Children are seen as "innocent angels" and youth are seen as "evil devils"
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United Nations Convention on rights of the child defines childhood with the ages 0-18
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They are seen as the positive future of society but yet they are also seen as the downfall of
society and how different they are from the previous generation
There is a paradox with children and youth
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Constructions of youth and gender
Children are culturally produced, as such vary across time and place
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Childhood and youth are contingent social constructions
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There are notions of good/evil tied to relations of gender, place, class
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White children are seen as younger than black children
Ie. Rich people feel that their children should be "protected" for longer than poor families
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Intersections of Race and Class
Technology running their lives
Child obesity
Not playing outside
Ruined by consumer culture
Pressure to achieve academically
Premature sexualization of children
There is an idea that childhood is in crisis
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The issue changes over time
Modern western childhood constantly thinks that children need protection
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Childhood in crisis
Within psychological framework childhood is seen as apprenticeship for adulthood related to age,
phsyical development and congnitive ability
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Progression from child to adult involves developing a "rational subjectivity"
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Sociological approaches by contrast are concerned with issues of socialization: how are children
socialized to become adults
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Psychological versus Sociological Approaches to childhood
Ie. Men in Europe wear speedos but in America
men wear swim shorts
They consume clothes and material
items
Ultimately they consume gender
expectations
Children are too young to go out and create
things in the world so they are just
consuming things.
-
Boys do more STEM classes and girls
do more arts or home-ec classes
There are different expectations for
different genders
-
Gender is a product of power relations
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We study children and youth because they are
different than their adult counterparts
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Youth and childhood changes depending on the
culture and the geographical area.
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Week : Sept 5… Discussion Sept 5 - Lecture 2
September 15, 2017
11:44 AM
WGST 2812 B.. B01 Page 1
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Within psychological framework childhood is seen as apprenticeship for adulthood related to age,
phsyical development and congnitive ability
-
Progression from child to adult involves developing a "rational subjectivity"
-
Sociological approaches by contrast are concerned with issues of socialization: how are children
socialized to become adults
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Psychology kind of had the "monopoly" on child studies
The idea that children are very absent in the field of sociology in the 1980s and 90s
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When children were discussed in mainstream sociology typically depicted as objects of
socialization
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Modern childhood was created
Childhood did not just exist as a life stage, childhood is really a social construction
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Though concept of socialization, young people viewed as existing outside of society and
incorporated through internalization of social roles and attributes
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Now people are looking at children as a collective group rather than individuals and looking at
children as having agency and not just as an "appendix" to their parents
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You have to look at children as agents who produce and reproduce power relations
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Children are active agents
They produce their own unique peer groups
Because they do these things, they contribute societal production and reproduction
William Corsaro - Interpretive reproduction
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Children form/produce their own hierarchies
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Does’t look at the eooi affets of hildre
There is a ritiis of the New soiolog is that it does’t talk aout a aterial aalsis
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New sociology of childhood
Formed in 1989
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Right to protection
Right to education
Right to participate
Right to adequate food
Etc..
Convention constructs a series of universal rights
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United Nation's convention of the rights of the child
With youth it is called leisure activities
Play is very central in childhood studies
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Children's play was thought as it being non-sensical or imaginary
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It is the most distinctive feature that distinguished adulthood from childhood
But play is very important
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18th century Europe fostered an idea of play as essential for children
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Building on the idea that play encourages self-expression, educators suggest that play is a
construction and that play can be a natural way to learn
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Childhood and play
Children's friendships have structure, internal logic that makes sense for children involved
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Though patterns of friendship and rituals of play children create meanings for themselves and
others
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Children create meanings through friendship in playground chasing games
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The idea that children have "cooties" is very gendered. Children made it seem that girls had more
"cooties" than boys
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These games point out the relationship between children's cultural worlds and broader contexts
to power relations
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Where girls hang out and where boys hangout
Girls change room vs boys change room and the same with bathrooms etc..
The study shows the importance of space and how girls and boys are segrigated or where the
different genders are situated
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Thorne's (1993) Case Study:
In contrast to creative and constructive ways children's play cast, young people's play seen as
potentially threatening and disturbing
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Maybe why youth play historically youth play has been disciplined through rule-bound formation
of team sports and physical education
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Young people "at play" becomes evident to indicate they unfit for adulthood
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People do not seen hanging out as "play"
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Youth Play:
G stanley Hall coined the term "adolescence"
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This word signifies that a new group is emerging
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Originally people just went from children to adults
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Now there is a stage in between
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There was a lot of tension between childhood and adulthood and there are a lot of
hormonal changes
Adolescence is a period of transition and marked by "storm and stress"
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Youth:
Since children are not seen as developed, they
get faced with injustices. They get left out of
decision making
-
They are seen as children when it suits the
adults in power
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WGST 2812 B.. B01 Page 2
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