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Women's and Gender Studies
WGST 1808
Christine Ekholst

Final Exam Questions Definitions and Descriptions: 3 marks each; 1/2-1 page 1) “The new man” -putting pressure on men to be fit, look good, not let themselves go -interested in fashion, and concerned about appearance -used to only be women who had this pressure, but now men too -positive outlook on men being fashion forward and and metrosexual -Eg. David Beckham: good fashion, fit, father figure -he is admired by homosexuals, and has all this pressure on him at the same time 2) Heterosexual Economy: -exchange of gifts within a romantic/sexual setting -society views heterosexual as normal, and anything else is abnormal (economy does this through music, ads, television, movies, etc) -significance: creates the stereotype that women don’t want to have sex for pleasure, but will do it for gifts and money 3) Post-Feminism: -began after 2nd and 3rd wave feminism and still exists today -believe that feminism is dead, and that they have reached their goals -since people believe there is equality amongst the sexes, ignore oppression and inequality against women -Hugh Hefner and other girls believe that by exploiting their bodies and appearing in porno’s, they are displaying liberation by being comfortable with their bodies 4) Performativity: -term created by Judith Butler -the way we are programmed from birth to perform/act/behave in certain ways according to our gender -men and women perform certain types of masculinity/femininity (women are sexy but not sexual) -drag artists emphasize gender as performance (performing the gender they wish to be) -female sexuality is more about performance/appearance than pleasure -Eg Paris Hilton’s sex tape: on the phone while having sex, but she is sexy -Eg Bois will be bois: shows masculinity that they are immature, irresponsible, and disrespect femininity) 5) Homosociality: -preference for the same-sex company -the fact that we are programmed to socialize more comfortably with the same-sex -can cause discrimination because tend to view opposite sex as “outsider” -not a romantic relationship -girls play with girls, and boys with boys -in the workplace, women are adapting asexual identities in order to fit into the male-bonded job environment (suits, etc) 6) Global Care Chains: -system that emphasizes globalization and intersectionality -one woman does not want to work double labour, so she hires a nanny who has children of her own -significance: men are usually absent from this, nanny’s children are not being taken care of, usually women from poor countries, oppressive for women 7) The glass ceiling/elevator: -ceiling: an invisible barrier blocking women from reaching the highest job opportunities (not limited to specific jobs) -elevator: counterpart for men, can reach the top of the job hierarchy without few restrictions -significance: sets us a step back from achieving equality, favor men over women, even if they have the same job qualifications --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shorter Essay Questions: 10 marks each; 2 pages 1) Reproductive Rights: -define: implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often. -reproductive rights include: contraceptives, maternal health, abortion -approx 1,000 women die everyday from pregnancy related causes, and 99% of these are women in developing countries -in developing countries we need to: have better access to contraceptives, doctors, sex education, improving maternal health and family planning and education -intersectional: legal restrictions on abortion do not effect the rate at which it is used (used the same amount inAfrica as in Europe) -to decrease abortion we must increase education in developing countries 2) Education, gendered/intersectional: -boys study math, comp sci, engineering, or choose not to study at all -girls study literature, arts, social sciences -teachers pay more attention to boys and they take up more time in classroom -mo
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