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Lab Exam Review.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 382
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Lab Exam ReviewBIOL382 F2012 Lab 1 1What is hematocrit and why are the levels of hematocrit important How is it measuredHematocrit isof blood that is composed of rbcs Sample of blood in centrifuge hematocrit will be at bottom of test tube WBCs thin layer on top and thick plasma layer of wbcs To get value of hematocrit you divide the hematocrit value over the total volume The average value for men is 48 and women is 44 Ratio of plateletswbcsplasma 6001402What is heparin It is an anticoagulant It is used to coat the test tubes used in the PhysioEx so that the blood doesnt coagulate during the experiment3 Oxygen and hemoglobin form oxyhemoglobin Hemoglobin can carry 4 Oxygen molecules4 You tested different concentrations of NaCl on blood for hematocrit levels draw a graph of your results and explain what is happening to the RBCs in terms of level of hematocrit and the hyperhypoisotonicity of the different solutions Water moving in causing them to swellLine at 50 control linend2 point is isotonic bc as moving up still hypotonic when moving down will become more hypertonic therefore in between is isotonicAbove the line water moves into the cell the red blood cells swell increasing the hematocrit valueWater then floods out of the rbcs causing crenation because they are in a hypertonic environment5 What will happen to RBCs when they are placed in an extremely hypotonic environment A slightly hypotonic environment What is causing these changes to take placeIn an extremely hypotonic solution water will flood into rbcs and they will burst upon contact This is seen when they are placed in distilled water In a slightly hypotonic environment then they will just swell In a population of rbcs however there could be some old RBC that will burst even in a slightly hypotonic environment because they are not as elastic Osmotic Pressure causes these changes to take place water moves through facilitated diffusion through aquaporin channels6 Why is there a range of partial haemolysis in mild hypotonic salt solutions Partial haemolysis in a population of RBCs younger ones have more elastic membrane have a higher ability to absorb the water Different cells will react differently to solute concentration7 Draw a picture of what RBCs would look like under the following NaCl concentrations 40 09 and 06 Explain why the drawings are differentLess in the 06 bc started to burst8 Youve contaminated your blood samples with saponin but arent sure if every sample is contaminated How would you determine which samples are contaminated Observe for lysing If you have rbcs all from same individual Expect same levels of hematocrit If centrifuge and see different levels of hematocrit know that some cells have lysed and those samples have been contaminated Transparent know that all cells have lysed 9 You have been diagnosed with anaemia If you were to measure your PCV packed cell volume to Hb ratio what would it be ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate Explain the cause behind two different types of anemia Ratio of PCVHb normally would be 31 however anemia less hemoglobin amount of hematocrit will be higher for example 51ESR how fast erythrocytes can settle 5mmHr is normal rateIn sickle cell anemia ESR would decrease blood cells dont pack as well ESR would be 0mmHrIrondeficient anemia less hemoglobin present rbcs are lighter ESR would increase rate is 30mmHrPernicious anemia vit B12 deficientAplastic anemia bone marrow deficient10 How can the level of haemoglobin be measured What would a normal reading be Give a cause of a lower than normal reading and a higher than normal reading Can be measured by quantitative hemoglobin determinationUse green because its easy on the eyes and therefore easier to detect changes1218g Hb100ml Higher than normal polycythemia more hemoglobinLower than normal can be anemia iron deficient aplastic cirrhosis of the liverLab 2 11 Draw and label a motor neuron
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