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CHEM 208 Notes Compiled 97-03.doc

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CHEM 208
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CHEM 208 NotesModule 1BasicsLesson 11Scientific MethodFive Steps of the Scientific Method1Performing experimentsSet of steps under controlled conditions to proposetest hypothesis2Making observationsQuantitativeQualitative3Proposing a HypothesisTentative explanation for observations4Confirming the HypothesisValidity needs to be confirmed via repeated and controlled experiments5Proposing Scientific LawRepeatedly perform experiments and modify hypothesisSignificant FiguresoRules for Determining Sig FigsAll nonzero digits are significant figuresCounting begins from left with first nonzero number leading 0s not significantZeros between nonzero digits are significant figuresTerminal zeros are always considered significant if number contains decimaloRules for Sig Figs in Chemical CalculationsAdditionsubtraction final answer contains same number of decimal places as the measurement with the least number of decimal places least precise measurementMultiplicationDivision final answer contains same number of significant figures as the measurement with least number of significant figuresCHEM 208 NotesWhen exact numbers unit conversions and constants are involved number of significant figures are dictated by the measured quantity involvedoRules for RoundingOff in Chemical CalculationsFor multistep calculations all numbers are carried to the final result which is then rounded off to correct number of significant figuresIf digit being rounded is 5 round up if preceding digit is odd and stays same if evenSI System of UnitsoLengthmoVolumem3 L mLoMass kgoDensitykgm3 gL gmLoPrefixes9632369Giga10 Mega10 Kilo10 Centi10 Milli10 Micro10 Nano10Lesson 12MatterElements and CompoundsoElements one type of atommetal nonmetal or metalloidoCompounds combination of elementsAtomsoProtons and neutrons in nucleusoElectrons surround nucleusoElectronsProtons in a neutral atomAtomic Number Mass Number and Atomic SymboloAtomic number number of protons in nucleus each element has a different numberoMass number total number of protons and neutronsMolecules and Ions
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