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Chem 208 - Notes.docx

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Concordia University
CHEM 208

Chem 208Module 2 The Scientific Method and MatterThe Scientific MethodStep 1 Performing ExperimentsStep 2 Making ObservationsStep 3 Proposing a HypothesisStep 4 Confirming the HypothesisStep 5 Proposing a Scientific LawScientific NotationIt is a mathematical expression in which a number is expressed as N x 10n where N contains only one nonzero digit to the left of the decimal and n is an integerRules for Determining Significant Figures digitsAll nonzero digits are significant figuresCounting begins from the left with the first nonzero numberZeros between nonzero digits are counted as sig figuresTerminal zeros zeros to the right of the right of a number are always significant if the value contains a decimal pointEx 23700 g 5 significant figures 1750 mL 4 significant figuresRule 1 In calculations involving measured values with a certainof sig figs the number of sig figs in the final answer depends on the operation performedRule 2 In multiplication and division of measured quantities the final answer contains the same number of sig figs as are in the measurement with the least number of sig figsRule 3 In the final answer of a calculation involving exact numbers unit conversion factors and constants the number of significant figures is dictated by the measured quantity involvedDensityMass VolumeMatterThe term matter is used to describe things that occupy space and are perceivable by our senses It can be classifies in terms of its physical state or chemical compositionElements composed of one type of atom Classified as a metal nonmetal or metalloidCompound a combination of elements in a definite proportion Atoms of each individual elements are chemically combined to form the compound A chemical change can break down a compound into its individual elementsMixture a nonpure substance made of 2 or more elements or compounds that can be separated by physical proceduresProtons have a positive charge found in the nucleus Neutrons have no charge found in the nucleusElectrons have a negative charge The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atomsThe mass number is equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom To calculate the number of neutrons subtract the atomic number from the mass numberMolecules are a combination of atoms in a definite proportion eg molecule of waterIons are charged species formed by loss or gain of electrons from an atomLoss of electroncation positively chargedGain of electronanion negatively charged
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