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CHEM 208
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Lesson 11Study MaterialsSlide 1Lesson 11Scientific Method1 Steps of the Scientific MethodThe scientific method performing a study in organized steps consists of 1 For example applying the scientific method ultimately led to the enunciation of the Law of Conservation of Mass and Matter Slide 21 Steps of the Scientific MethodStep 1 Performing Experiments An experiment is a set of steps procedures that are performed under controlled conditions to propose or test a hypothesis Step 2 Making Observations Observations a key factor in scientific studies as well as in everyday life can be classified asQualitativeQuantitativeQuantitative observation is a measurement It has two componentsA measured quantity numerical value Qualitative observation does not use numbers with an appropriate unit Examples ExampleThe flower is purpleObserved temperature measured using a Bubbles are produced when lemon thermometer for the liquid was found to be juice is added to baking soda33C In this case the measured quantity is temperature and the appropriate unit is C2Step 3 Proposing a Hypothesis A hypothesis is a tentative explanation to account for the observations of an experiment A hypothesis is valid provided that ones assumptions to explain the observations of an experiment can be tested Step 4 Confirming the Hypothesis The validity of the hypothesis needs to be confirmed via repeated and controlled experiments In order to accept a hypothesis there must be no inconsistencies between the hypothesis and the experimental observations In the event of any inconsistencies steps 1 through 4 must be repeated Step 5 Proposing a Scientific LawBy repeatedly performing experiments and modifying the hypothesis to account for the observations from these experiments one is able to propose a scientific law Slide 4Expression of Numerical Value Certain rules apply to the expression of the numerical value and the system of units used in scientific measurements These include Scientific notationSignificant figures SI system of units Slide 52 Scientific Notation Scientific notation is a very convenient way of expressing very large or very small numbers and at the same time provides a method of increasing efficiency in scientific calculations nIt is a mathematical expression in which a number is expressed as N x 10 where N contains only one nonzero digit to the left of the decimal and n is an integerExamplesMeasurement Scientific Notation 0123 g 123 x 10g 310004 mL10004 x 10mL3 00012 mg12 x 10 mg15 162832 x 10 L 2832 x 10L 7210 million kg210 x 10 kg3
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