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78 Pages

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CHEM 208

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CHEM 208 CHAPTER NOTESCHAPTER 11SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Scientific Method consists of1Performing experiments2Making observations3Proposing a hypothesis4Confirming the hypothesis5Proposing a Scientific LawStep 1 An experiment is a set of steps procedures that are performed under controlled conditions to propose or test a hypothesisStep 2 Observations a key factor in scientific studies as well as in everyday life can be classified as Qualitative observation does not use numbers or Quantitative observation a measurement which has two components A measured quantity numerical value with an appropriate unitStep 3 A hypothesis is a tentative explanation to account for the observations of an experiment A hypothesis is valid provided that ones assumptions to explain the observations of an experiment can be testedStep 4 The validity of the hypothesis needs to be confirmed via repeated and controlled experiments In order to accept a hypothesis there must be no inconsistencies between the hypothesis and the experimental observations In the event of any inconsistencies steps 1 through 4 must be repeated Step 5 By repeatedly performing experiments and modifying the hypothesis to account for the observations from these experiments one is able to propose a scientific law Certain rules apply to the expression of the numerical value and the system of units used in scientific measurements These include Scientific notation Significant figures SI system of units Scientific Notation01013100001210100Scientific Figures RulesRule 1 All nonzero digits are significant figures13562 g5 Significant Figures236 cm3 Significant Figures179871 kg6 Significant FiguresRule 2 Counting begins from the left with the first nonzero number thus leading zeros are not significant0056 mL2 Significant Figures0000356 L3 Significant Figures00225 kg3 Significant FiguresRule 3 Zeros between nonzero digits are counted as significant figures 1056 g4 Significant Figures3078 cm4 Significant Figures3005 mL4 Significant FiguresRule 4 Terminal zeros zeros to the right of a number are always significant if the value contains a decimal point 23700 g5 Significant Figures1750 mL4 Significant Figures200 cm3 Significant Figures2200 x 10 cm3 Significant Figures220 x 10 cm2 Significant Figures22 x 10 cm1 Significant FigureEX 1352006 Significant Figures00015244 Significant Figures3300 x 103 Significant FiguresRules for Significant Figures in Chemical Calculations Rule 1 In addition and subtraction of measured quantities the final answer contains the same number of decimal places as are in the measurement with least number of decimal places least precise measurementEx250 g2241 g1234 g486 g485 mL002 mL483 mL Rule 2 In multiplication and division of measured quantities the final answer contains the same number of significant figures as are in the measurement with the least number of significant figuresEx 920 g 3 sig fig x 2450 4 sig fig225 g235 cm 3 sig fig1456 4 sig fig161 cm
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