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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 208
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
SoapsandDetergentsWhatareSurfactantsSoapsanddetergentsarecomposedofsurfactantsSurfactantsarewatersolubleandsurfaceactiveagentsSurfactantsarecomposedofahydrophilicwatersolubleheadandahydrophobicfatsolublewaterhatingtailThehydrophilicendisstablewhensolubilizedinwaterandthehydrophobicendconsistsofalongchainhydrocarbonthatismorestablewhensurroundedbyotherorganicgroupsClassesofSurfactantsTherearedifferentclassesofsurfactantscategorizedbythechargeofthehydrophiliccomponentofthesurfactantmoleculeafterdissociationinwaterAnionicsurfactantshaveanegativechargeCationicsurfactantshaveapositivechargeNonionicsurfactantshavenochargeAmphotericsurfactantshavebothpositiveandnegativechargesAllAboutSoapAdvantagesSoaps are manufactured from combinations of natural and renewable resourcesSoaps are biodegradable and thus do not pollute bodies of waterDisadvantages22Formation of soap film or scum in water containing Ca and Mg ions hard waterThe calcium and magnesium ions react with soap molecules to produce calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids These salts are insoluble in water and impair the surfactant properties of soap because the amount of soap available for cleaning is reduced Soap scum is difficult to rinse away and can be visible ie on fabrics bathtubs and sinksPoor adaptability to diversity of fibers washing temperatures and water conditionsTendency to clog sewage systems due to their gelling propertiesCompositionandLimitationsofSoapSoapsanionicsurfactantsconsistofthelonghydrocarbontailsoffattyacidsandthepolarheadsofsodiumorpotassiumsaltsoffattyacidsfoundinfatsandoilsofanimalsandplantsTraditionallysoapwasmadefromanimalfatandwoodashcomposedofpotassiumhydroxideandpotassiumcarbonateAllAboutDetergentAdvantages
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